Presentation on theme: "18 Cold War Conflicts Origins of the Cold War The Cold War Heats Up"— Presentation transcript:
118 Cold War Conflicts Origins of the Cold War The Cold War Heats Up QUIT18C H A P T E RCold War ConflictsCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1Origins of the Cold WarMAPSECTION2The Cold War Heats UpSECTION3The Cold War at HomeGRAPHSECTION4Two Nations Live on the EdgeVISUAL SUMMARY
2HOME18C H A P T E RCold War ConflictsCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War
318 Cold War Conflicts I N T E R A C T HOME18C H A P T E RCold War ConflictsI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YAt the end of World War II, Americans begin to be haunted by a new fear. The Soviets have embraced a tightly controlled political system called communism. Many believe it threatens the American way of life. Throughout the nation, suspected communists are called before a House subcommittee for questioning. Anyone accused of un-American activity faces public humiliation and professional ruin.What do you do when a friend is accused?Examine the Issues• Do Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat to the nation?• What can individual citizens do to protect the rights of all people?• Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights of others?
418 Cold War Conflicts The United States The World continued . . . HOME C H A P T E RCold War ConflictsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1945 United Nations is established.1946 Churchill gives his “Iron Curtain” speech.1948 Harry S. Truman is elected president.1948 Berlin airlift begins.1949 United States joins NATO.1949 China becomes communist under Mao Zedong.1950 U.S. sends troops to Korea.1950 Korean War begins.1952 U.S. explodes first hydrogen bomb. Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected president.1953 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed as spies.1953 Participants in Korean War agree on cease-fire.1954 Senator Joseph McCarthy alleges Communist involvement in U.S. Army.1954 French are defeated in Vietnam.continued . . .
518 Cold War Conflicts The United States The World HOME TIME LINE C H A P T E RCold War ConflictsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1957 Soviets launch Sputnik.1959 Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba.1960 Francis Gary Powers’s U-2 spy plane is shot down by the Soviets. John F. Kennedy is elected president.
61 Origins of the Cold War KEY IDEA S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEKEY IDEAThe Allied coalition falls apart as the United States and the Soviet Union find themselves in conflict with each other.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
71 Origins of the Cold War OVERVIEW S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems.After World War II, differences between the United States and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st century.TERMS & NAMES• satellite nation• Marshall Plan• Berlin Airlift• Truman Doctrine• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)• United Nations (UN)• Cold War• iron curtain• containmentASSESSMENT
8S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. Describe the United States actions and the Soviet actions that contributed most to the cold war.U.S. ActionsSoviet ActionsMarshall PlanAid to Greece and TurkeyContainmentTruman DoctrineBerlin AirliftRefusal to allow free elections in PolandControl of Eastern EuropeBlockade of West Berlincontinued . . .
9S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT2. People who had served as aides to President Franklin Roosevelt worried that Truman was not qualified to handle world leadership. Considering what you learned in this section, evaluate Truman as a world leader. Think About:• his behavior toward Stalin• his economic support of European nations• his support of West BerlinANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Truman was an effective leader who took firm actions to contain Soviet influence and support the Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift.He overreacted and was too belligerent.continued . . .
10S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. Which of the two superpowers do you think was more successful in achieving its aims during the period 1945–1949?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:The Soviets were most successful because they extended their influence into Eastern Europe.The United States was more successful because it broke the blockade of West Berlin and helped rebuild Europe.continued . . .
11S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT4. What were Stalin’s motives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe?ANSWERStalin wanted Eastern Europe as a buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union from an invasion on its western front.End of Section 1
122 The Cold War Heats Up KEY IDEA S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEKEY IDEAU.S. containment policies and Communist successes in China and North Korea lead to the Korean War.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
132 The Cold War Heats Up OVERVIEW S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a democratic south.Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States.TERMS & NAMES• Korean War• Mao Zedong• Chiang Kai-shek• Taiwan• 38th parallelASSESSMENT
142 The Cold War Heats Up 1. List the major events of the Korean War. HOME2S E C T I O NThe Cold War Heats UpASSESSMENT1. List the major events of the Korean War.Event TwoEvent OneEvent FourEvent SixEvent ThreeEvent FiveEvent SevenJune North Korea invades South Korea.Sept MacArthur launches a counterattack at Inchon.Nov China enters the war.1948 Korea is split into two nations.June U.S. supports South Korea.Sept.-Oct The UN counterattack succeeds.July The Armistice is signed.continued . . .
15S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEASSESSMENT2. What might have happened if MacArthur had convinced Truman to expand the fighting into China? How might today’s world be different?ANSWERA third world war might have broken out, resulting in the obliteration of millions by nuclear weapons.continued . . .
16S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEASSESSMENT3. Many Americans have questioned whether fighting the Korean War was worthwhile. What is your opinion? Why? Think About:• the loss of American lives• the fear of communism that enveloped the country at the time• the stalemate that ended the warANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:The war was not worthwhile because Korea remained a divided nation.The war was worthwhile because, without it, all of Korea might have become Communist.continued . . .
17S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEASSESSMENT4. At the end of China’s civil war, the United States refused to accept the communist People’s Republic of China as China’s true government. What were the advantages of such a policy? What were the disadvantages?ANSWERAdvantages—The United States remained committed to its policy of containment of Communism.Disadvantages—Refusal to recognize the Communist government in China kept the United States from influencing China and drove China into an alliance with the Soviet Union.End of Section 2
183 The Cold War at Home KEY IDEA S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEKEY IDEAThe Cold War kindles a fear of Communist influence in the United States.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
193 The Cold War at Home OVERVIEW S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDuring the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens.Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.TERMS & NAMES• Alger Hiss• Hollywood Ten• McCarthyism• Ethel and Julius Rosenberg• Joseph McCarthy• HUAC• blacklistASSESSMENT
20Anti-Communist fear gripped the country. S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEASSESSMENT1. Give four examples of how anti-Communist fear gripped the country.HUAC investigates un-American activities in Hollywood.Spy cases increase fears.Anti-Communist fear gripped the country.Congress passes the McCarran Act.McCarthy arouses fear of a Communist conspiracy.continued . . .
21S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEASSESSMENT2. If you had lived in this period and had been accused of being a Communist, what would you have done? Think About:• the Hollywood Ten, who refused to answer questions• the Rosenbergs, who pleaded the Fifth AmendmentANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:I would have refused to name others because that would have been the honorable course to take.I would have shown loyalty to the United States by answering the committee’s questions.continued . . .
22S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEASSESSMENT3. Choose one of the following roles: Harry Truman, a member of HUAC, Judge Irving Kaufman, or Joseph McCarthy. As the person you have chosen, explain your motivation for opposing communism.ANSWERTruman: He feared the spread of communism in Asia and Europe.HUAC: Its members believed that communists were sneaking propaganda into films.Irving Kaufman: He believed that Communist spies were responsible for the Korean War.Joseph McCarthy: He believed that communism was infiltrating the country.End of Section 3
23Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEKEY IDEATension mounts between the United States and the Soviet Union as both try to spread their influence around the world.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
24Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDuring the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war.The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.TERMS & NAMES• John Foster Dulles• Warsaw Pact• Nikita Khrushchev• brinkmanship• Dwight D. Eisenhower• Francis Gary Powers• Eisenhower Doctrine• CIA• U-2 incident• H-bombASSESSMENT
25Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT1. List cold war trouble spots in Guatemala, Iran, Egypt and Hungary. For each, write a newspaper headline that summarizes the U.S. role and the outcome of the situation.Trouble SpotHeadlineGuatemalaCIA-Trained Army Topples Guatemalan GovernmentIranU.S. Prevents Iranian-Soviet AllianceEgyptU.S. Urges Peaceful Suez SolutionHungaryUnited States Refuses to Send Help to Hungarians as Soviets Put Down Revoltcontinued . . .
26Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT2. How might the Cold War have progressed if the U-2 incident had never occurred? Think About:• the mutual distrust between the Soviet Union and the United States• the outcome of the incidentANSWERThe U-2 incident greatly increased tension. Had it not happened, the United States and the Soviet Union might have taken steps to resolve their differences.continued . . .
27Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT3. Which of the two superpowers do you think contributed more to Cold War tensions during the 1950s?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:The Soviets contributed more to Cold War tension because they took over Eastern Europe, crushed the Hungarian Uprising, and rejected Eisenhower’s “open skies” proposal.The United States contributed more to Cold War tensions because of the U-2 incident, the Eisenhower Doctrine, and United States involvement in Guatemala and Iran.Both countries were equally at fault.continued . . .
28Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT4. Should one nation have the right to remove another nation’s head of government from power? If so, when? If not, why?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Yes: if the head of government has policies that threaten the other nation’s existenceNo: Every country has the right to determine its own government without outside interference.End of Section 4