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18 Cold War Conflicts QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION Origins of the Cold War 1 SECTION.

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Presentation on theme: "18 Cold War Conflicts QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION Origins of the Cold War 1 SECTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 18 Cold War Conflicts QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION Origins of the Cold War 1 SECTION The Cold War Heats Up 2 SECTION The Cold War at Home 3 SECTION Two Nations Live on the Edge 4 MAP GRAPH

2 18 Cold War Conflicts HOME CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War

3 18 W I T H H I S T O R Y I N T E R A C T What do you do when a friend is accused? Examine the Issues At the end of World War II, Americans begin to be haunted by a new fear. The Soviets have embraced a tightly controlled political system called communism. Many believe it threatens the American way of life. Throughout the nation, suspected communists are called before a House subcommittee for questioning. Anyone accused of un-American activity faces public humiliation and professional ruin. What can individual citizens do to protect the rights of all people? Do Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat to the nation? HOME Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights of others? Cold War Conflicts

4 18 The United StatesThe World 1948 Harry S. Truman is elected president Berlin airlift begins United States joins NATO China becomes communist under Mao Zedong United Nations is established U.S. sends troops to Korea Korean War begins. TIME LINE HOME 1952 U.S. explodes first hydrogen bomb. Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected president Senator Joseph McCarthy alleges Communist involvement in U.S. Army French are defeated in Vietnam Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed as spies Participants in Korean War agree on cease- fire Churchill gives his “Iron Curtain” speech. continued... Cold War Conflicts

5 18 The United StatesThe World 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik. TIME LINE HOME 1959 Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba Francis Gary Powers’s U-2 spy plane is shot down by the Soviets. John F. Kennedy is elected president. Cold War Conflicts

6 1 Origins of the Cold War The Allied coalition falls apart as the United States and the Soviet Union find themselves in conflict with each other. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA MAP HOME

7 1 Origins of the Cold War OVERVIEW The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems. After World War II, differences between the United States and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st century. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME satellite nation Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift Truman Doctrine North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) United Nations (UN) Cold War iron curtain containment ASSESSMENT MAP

8 1 Origins of the Cold War 1. Describe the United States actions and the Soviet actions that contributed most to the cold war. continued... U.S. Actions Refusal to allow free elections in Poland Control of Eastern Europe Blockade of West Berlin Marshall Plan Aid to Greece and Turkey Containment Truman Doctrine Berlin Airlift HOME ASSESSMENT MAP Soviet Actions

9 1 Origins of the Cold War 2. People who had served as aides to President Franklin Roosevelt worried that Truman was not qualified to handle world leadership. Considering what you learned in this section, evaluate Truman as a world leader. Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Truman was an effective leader who took firm actions to contain Soviet influence and support the Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift. He overreacted and was too belligerent. his behavior toward Stalin his economic support of European nations his support of West Berlin HOME ASSESSMENT continued... MAP

10 1 Origins of the Cold War 3. Which of the two superpowers do you think was more successful in achieving its aims during the period 1945–1949? continued... ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: The Soviets were most successful because they extended their influence into Eastern Europe. The United States was more successful because it broke the blockade of West Berlin and helped rebuild Europe. HOME ASSESSMENT MAP

11 1 Origins of the Cold War 4. What were Stalin’s motives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe? ANSWER Stalin wanted Eastern Europe as a buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union from an invasion on its western front. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 1 MAP

12 2 The Cold War Heats Up U.S. containment policies and Communist successes in China and North Korea lead to the Korean War. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME

13 2 The Cold War Heats Up HOME OVERVIEW After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a democratic south. Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT Korean War Mao Zedong Chiang Kai-shek Taiwan 38th parallel

14 2 1. List the major events of the Korean War. continued... June 1950 North Korea invades South Korea. HOME ASSESSMENT 1948 Korea is split into two nations. The Cold War Heats Up Sept MacArthur launches a counterattack at Inchon. Nov China enters the war. June 1950 U.S. supports South Korea. Sept.-Oct The UN counterattack succeeds. July 1953 The Armistice is signed. Event Two Event One Event FourEvent Six Event Three Event FiveEvent Seven

15 2 The Cold War Heats Up 2. What might have happened if MacArthur had convinced Truman to expand the fighting into China? How might today’s world be different? ANSWER A third world war might have broken out, resulting in the obliteration of millions by nuclear weapons. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...

16 2 The Cold War Heats Up 3. Many Americans have questioned whether fighting the Korean War was worthwhile. What is your opinion? Why? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: The war was not worthwhile because Korea remained a divided nation. The war was worthwhile because, without it, all of Korea might have become Communist. the loss of American lives the fear of communism that enveloped the country at the time the stalemate that ended the war HOME ASSESSMENT continued...

17 2 The Cold War Heats Up 4. At the end of China’s civil war, the United States refused to accept the communist People’s Republic of China as China’s true government. What were the advantages of such a policy? What were the disadvantages? ANSWER Advantages—The United States remained committed to its policy of containment of Communism. Disadvantages—Refusal to recognize the Communist government in China kept the United States from influencing China and drove China into an alliance with the Soviet Union. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 2

18 3 The Cold War at Home The Cold War kindles a fear of Communist influence in the United States. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME

19 3 The Cold War at Home HOME TERMS & NAMES Alger Hiss Hollywood Ten McCarthyism Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Joseph McCarthy HUAC blacklist ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens. Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW

20 3 The Cold War at Home 1. Give four examples of how anti-Communist fear gripped the country. continued... Anti-Communist fear gripped the country. HOME ASSESSMENT HUAC investigates un-American activities in Hollywood. Spy cases increase fears. Congress passes the McCarran Act. McCarthy arouses fear of a Communist conspiracy.

21 3 The Cold War at Home 2. If you had lived in this period and had been accused of being a Communist, what would you have done? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: I would have refused to name others because that would have been the honorable course to take. I would have shown loyalty to the United States by answering the committee’s questions. continued... the Hollywood Ten, who refused to answer questions the Rosenbergs, who pleaded the Fifth Amendment HOME ASSESSMENT

22 3 The Cold War at Home 3. Choose one of the following roles: Harry Truman, a member of HUAC, Judge Irving Kaufman, or Joseph McCarthy. As the person you have chosen, explain your motivation for opposing communism. ANSWER Truman: He feared the spread of communism in Asia and Europe. HUAC: Its members believed that communists were sneaking propaganda into films. Irving Kaufman: He believed that Communist spies were responsible for the Korean War. Joseph McCarthy: He believed that communism was infiltrating the country. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 3

23 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge Tension mounts between the United States and the Soviet Union as both try to spread their influence around the world. KEY IDEA OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH

24 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME TERMS & NAMES John Foster Dulles Warsaw Pact Nikita Khrushchev brinkmanship Dwight D. Eisenhower Francis Gary Powers Eisenhower Doctrine CIA U-2 incident H-bomb ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW During the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war. The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW GRAPH

25 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 1. List cold war trouble spots in Guatemala, Iran, Egypt and Hungary. For each, write a newspaper headline that summarizes the U.S. role and the outcome of the situation. continued... CIA-Trained Army Topples Guatemalan Government Guatemala HOME ASSESSMENT Trouble SpotHeadline GRAPH Iran Egypt Hungary U.S. Prevents Iranian-Soviet Alliance U.S. Urges Peaceful Suez Solution United States Refuses to Send Help to Hungarians as Soviets Put Down Revolt

26 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 2. How might the Cold War have progressed if the U-2 incident had never occurred? Think About: ANSWER The U-2 incident greatly increased tension. Had it not happened, the United States and the Soviet Union might have taken steps to resolve their differences. the mutual distrust between the Soviet Union and the United States the outcome of the incident HOME ASSESSMENT continued... GRAPH

27 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 3. Which of the two superpowers do you think contributed more to Cold War tensions during the 1950s? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: The Soviets contributed more to Cold War tension because they took over Eastern Europe, crushed the Hungarian Uprising, and rejected Eisenhower’s “open skies” proposal. The United States contributed more to Cold War tensions because of the U-2 incident, the Eisenhower Doctrine, and United States involvement in Guatemala and Iran. Both countries were equally at fault. HOME ASSESSMENT continued... GRAPH

28 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 4. Should one nation have the right to remove another nation’s head of government from power? If so, when? If not, why? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Yes: if the head of government has policies that threaten the other nation’s existence No: Every country has the right to determine its own government without outside interference. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 4 GRAPH


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