2 Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work.Your cells are busy using energy to build new molecules, contract muscles, and carry out active transport.Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist.
3 Chemical Energy and ATP One of the most important compounds that cells use to store and releaseenergy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP).ATP consists ofadeninea 5-carbon sugar called ribosethree phosphate groups
4 Storing EnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) looks almost like ATP, except that it has two phosphate groups instead of three. ADP contains some energy, but not as much as ATP.When a cell has energy available, it can store small amounts of it by adding phosphate groups to ADP, producing ATP.ADP is like a rechargeable battery that powers the machinery of the cell.
5 Releasing EnergyCells can release the energy stored in ATP by breaking the bonds between the second and third phosphate groups.Because a cell can add or subtract these phosphate groups, it has an efficient way of storing and releasing energy as needed.
6 Using Biochemical Energy One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to carry out active transport.Many cell membranes contain sodium-potassium pumps.ATP provides the energy that keeps these pumps working, maintaining a balance of ions on both sides of the cell membrane.
7 Using Biochemical Energy ATP powers movement, providing the energy for motor proteins that contract muscle and power the movement of cilia and flagella.Energy from ATP powers the synthesis of proteins and responses to chemical signals at the cell surface.
8 Using Biochemical Energy ATP is not a good molecule for storing large amounts of energy over the long term.It is more efficient for cells to keep only a small supply of ATP on hand.Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in foods like glucose.
9 Heterotrophs and Autotrophs What happens during the process of photosynthesis?In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
10 Heterotrophs and Autotrophs Organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things are known as heterotrophs.Some heterotrophs get their food by eating plants.Other heterotrophs, such as this cheetah, obtain food from plants indirectly by feeding on plant-eating animals.Still other heterotrophs, such as mushrooms, obtain food by decomposing other organisms.
11 Heterotrophs and Autotrophs Organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs.Plants, algae, and some bacteria are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.The process by which autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to produce high-energy carbohydrates that can be used for food is known as photosynthesis.
12 8.2 Photosynthesis: An Overview Lesson Overview8.2 Photosynthesis: An Overview
13 Light Energy from the sun travels to Earth in the form of light. Sunlight is a mixture of different wavelengths, many of which are visible to our eyes and make up the visible spectrum.Our eyes see the different wavelengths of the visible spectrum as different colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
14 PigmentsPlants gather the sun’s energy with light-absorbing molecules called pigments.The plants’ principal pigment is chlorophyll.
15 PigmentsThe two types of chlorophyll found in plants, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, absorb light very well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, but not in the green region, as shown in the graph.Leaves reflect green light, which is why plants look green.
16 PigmentsPlants also contain red and orange pigments such as carotene that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum.Most of the time, the green color of the chlorophyll overwhelms the other pigments, but as temperatures drop and chlorophyll molecules break down, the red and orange pigments may be seen.
17 ChloroplastsPhotosynthesis takes place inside organelles called chloroplasts.Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes called thylakoids, which are interconnected and arranged in stacks known as grana.
18 Chloroplasts Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. The fluid portion outside of the thylakoids is known as the stroma.
19 Energy CollectionBecause light is a form of energy, any compound that absorbs light absorbs energy. Chlorophyll absorbs visible light especially well.When chlorophyll absorbs light, a large fraction of the light energy is transferred to electrons. These high-energy electrons make photosynthesis work.
20 High-Energy Electrons What are electron carrier molecules?An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
21 High-Energy Electrons The high-energy electrons produced by chlorophyll are highly reactive and require a special “carrier.”
22 High-Energy Electrons Think of a high-energy electron as being similar to a hot potato. If you wanted to move the potato from one place to another, you would use an oven mitt—a carrier—to transport it.Plants use electron carriers to transport high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.
23 High-Energy Electrons NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is a carrier molecule.NADP+ accepts and holds two high-energy electrons, along with a hydrogen ion (H+). In this way, it is converted into NADPH.The NADPH can then carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
24 An Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen.In symbols:6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2In words:Carbon dioxide + Water Sugars + Oxygen
25 An Overview of Photosynthesis Plants use the sugars generated by photosynthesis to produce complex carbohydrates such as starches, and to provide energy for the synthesis of other compounds, including proteins and lipids.
26 Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis involves two sets of reactions.The first set of reactions is known as the light-dependent reactions because they require the direct involvement of light and light-absorbing pigments.
27 Light-Dependent Reactions The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP and NADPH.These reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.
28 Light-Dependent Reactions Water is required as a source of electrons and hydrogen ions.Oxygen is released as a byproduct.
29 Light-Independent Reactions Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and complete the process of photosynthesis by producing sugars and other carbohydrates.During light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH molecules produced in the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars from carbon dioxide.
30 Light-Independent Reactions No light is required to power the light-independent reactions.The light-independent reactions take place outside the thylakoids, in the stroma.