2The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP Adenosine Triphosphateadenine (nitrogen base)Ribose (sugar)Three phosphate groups2
3The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP. Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.Starch moleculeGlucose molecule
4Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed.ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.phosphate removed
5Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a lower energy molecule that is created by the removal of the phosphate group.
6Carbohydrates are the most common molecule to be broken down for ATP - 36 ATP from 1 glucoseFats store the most energy.80 percent of the energy in your bodyProteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.amino acids not usually needed for energy
7Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP. Plants and animals use ATP for chemical reactionsPlants are autotrophs (make their own carbohydrates)Animals are heterotrophs (consume carbohydrates)If plants didn’t haveMitochondria, theycould make food, butwouldn’t be able to useit!
8A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy. Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight.In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules.similar to photosynthesisuses chemical energy instead of light energy
9In photosynthesis, organisms make their own food using solar energy.
10Photosynthetic organisms are producers. Producers (Autotrophs) make their own source of chemical energy.Plants use photosynthesis and are producers.Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.10
11KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. 11
12Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy. chloroplastleaf cellleafIn plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts.
13Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts. Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts.grana (stacks of thylakoids)Stroma (fluid around the grana)chloroplaststromagrana (thylakoids)
14The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight. take place in thylakoidswater and sunlight are neededchlorophyll absorbs energyenergy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactionsoxygen is released14
15The light-independent reactions make sugars. take place in stromaneeds 6 carbon dioxide molecules from atmosphereuse energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions15
16The equation for the overall process is: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2sunlightC6H12O6granum (stack of thylakoids)thylakoidsunlight1 six-carbon sugar6H2O6CO26O2chloroplast1243energystroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)
17Chlorophyll is the main pigment in plants Green light is reflected
18Chlorophyll is the main pigment in plants Chlorophyll a absorbs violet and red lightChlorophyll b absorbs blue and red
20Light Dependent Reaction The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems.
21Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons enter electron transport chainwater molecules are splitoxygen is released as wastehydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane
22Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons are used to make NADPH (e carrier)NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions
23The light-dependent reactions produce ATP. hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membraneATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATP
24Calvin cycle (dark reaction) Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO2 molecules.
25A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycleenergy is added and carbon molecules are rearrangedsome molecules are made into sugarother molecules stay in cycle.