11Photosynthesis **** Mention chemosynthesis somewhere bc its in AP bio Autotrophic cells capture free energy through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.Photosynthesis traps free energy present in sunlight that, in turn, is used to producecarbohydrates from carbon dioxide. Chemosynthesis captures energy present in inorganicchemicals. Cellular respiration and fermentation harvest free energy from sugars toproduce free energy carriers, including ATP. The free energy available in sugars drivesmetabolic pathways in cells. Photosynthesis and respiration are interdependent processes.
12HeterotrophHeterotroph - Organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
13AutotrophAutotroph - Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer.
14Which organisms go through Photosynthesis? Some Protists(ex. Algae)PlantsPhotosynthetic Bacteria(ex. Cyanobacteria)
15PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis - Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
16Photosynthesis Needed (Reactants): Given Off (Products): Light Water Carbon dioxideGiven Off (Products):SugarsOxygen
17ChlorophyllPhotosynthesis also requires chlorophyll, a molecule located in chloroplasts.Chlorophyll - Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms; captures light energy
18ChlorophyllPlants gather the sun's energy with light-absorbing molecules called pigments.The plants' principal pigments are called chlorophyll.Chlorophyll does not absorb light well in the green region of the spectrum therefore green light is reflected by leaves (this is why plants look green).
25Electron Carriers within the Light Dependent reaction Inside the thylakoid, electrons within the chlorophyll become “excited” (gain energy) from the sunlight. Now that they have all this energy they require a carrier molecule : NADP+.
26NADP+NADP+As soon as this carrier molecule NADP+ accepts the energy (from the electrons) it converts the NADP+ into NADPH.This transfer of electrons and energy is called the Electron Transport Chain (ETC)(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).
27Light Dependent Reactions The sunlight breaks each water molecule into :electronsH+ ions (released into thylakoid membrane)Oxygen atoms (released into the air)
28Light Dependent Reactions As electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP+, more hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane.Inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged hydrogen ions.Outside of thylakoid membrane becomes negatively charged.The difference in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make ATP. The H+ ions are important!Don’t teach just FYI
29Light Dependent Reactions ATP Synthase - Large protein/enzyme that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.Spans the thylakoid membrane and allows H+ ions to pass through it.Overall: Produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
35Factors Affecting Photosynthesis WaterA shortage of water can slow or even stop photosynthesis.TemperaturePhotosynthesis depends on enzymes that function best between 0°C and 35°C.Intensity of LightIncreasing light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis...but a plant will reach a maximum rate.