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Chapter 6: Photosynthesis Mrs. Stewart Honors Biology Central Magnet.

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1 Chapter 6: Photosynthesis Mrs. Stewart Honors Biology Central Magnet

2 Standards  CLE Investigate the relationship between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.  SPI Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy transformation.

3 Objectives  Summarize the reactants and products of photosynthesis.  Describe the reactants and products of the light reactions.  Describe the reactants and products of the Calvin Cycle (dark reactions).  Summarize how the light reactions and Calvin cycle work together to create a continuous cycle of photosynthesis.

4 Q: Where does the energy come from in each stage of the food chain? Think – Pair - Share

5 Autotrophs  Make their own food

6 Heterotrophs  Cannot make their own food

7 WHAT is the energy?  Much of the energy used by living organisms is in the form of ATP

8 Chemical Energy and ATP  The principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is called ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

9 Storing Energy  ATP stores energy in the bond between the second and third phosphate group  ATP is like a fully charged battery Energy

10 Releasing Energy Q: How is the energy in ATP released? A: Break bond between the second and 3 rd phosphates ADP 2 Think – Pair - Share

11 ATP vs. ADP  ATP – has all 3 phosphate groups  Fully charged battery  Brief energy storage  Can remove a phosphate group to release energy and form ADP  ADP – has only 2 phosphate groups  Partially charged battery  Can add a phosphate group to make ATP

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14 ATP Availability  Most cells only have enough ATP for a few seconds of activity  Why?  Not good at storing energy over the long term  Glucose stores 90 times the chemical energy of ATP  Cells generate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in foods (like glucose)

15 6-1: Photosynthesis

16 Photosynthesis  The process in which plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates – sugars and starches – and oxygen as a waste product

17 Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 LIGHT (Carbon Dioxide)(Water)(Sun)(Glucose)(Oxygen)

18 Photosynthesis

19 The Visible Light Spectrum

20 Pigments  Absorb different wavelengths of light (colors)  Reflect (transmit) what they do not absorb  We see what is reflected back.

21 Chlorophyll  The plant’s principal pigment  absorbs light energy  blue-violet  red

22 Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b VBGYOR Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a

23 Q: Why are leaves green? A: because chlorophyll absorbs the blue-violet and red light and reflects the green back. Think – Pair - Share

24 Because light is a form of energy…  Anything that absorbs light also absorbs the energy from that light  When chlorophyll absorbs light, much of the energy is transferred to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule, raising the energy level of these electrons  These high-energy electrons make photosynthesis work

25 Photosynthesis Basics  Where does photosynthesis take place? In organelles called chloroplasts.

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27 Thylakoids  Sac-like photosynthetic membranes arranged in stacks

28 Grana  Stacks of thylakoids  Granum – singular  Grana - plural

29 Stroma  The region outside the thylakoid  The watery region in a chloroplast  Similar to the cytoplasm in the cell

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31 Photosynthesis occurs in two parts: 1. Light – dependent reactions (takes place in the thylakoid membranes) 2. Light – independent/Calvin Cycle reactions (takes place in stroma)

32 ANALYZE THE PICTURE  List the reactants and products for 1. The light dependent reactions 2. The Calvin Cycle (light independent) reactions  List the location where each reaction occurs

33 Pg. 123

34 Light Dependent Reactions  “photo” part of photosynthesis  Reactants:  H 2 O, energy from light (photons) NADP +, ADP + and phosphate group  Products:  Oxygen gas, ATP, NADPH

35 Q: Where did the Oxygen, produced by the light dependent reactions come from? A: H 2 O Think – Pair – Share

36 What you need to know:  Where do the light reactions occur?  What is needed (reactants)?  What is created (products) In the thylakoids. Light (photons) water ATP & NADPH - go on to Calvin cycle Oxygen - that is released

37 Carrier Molecule  Compound that can accept a high energy electron and transfer it along with most of its energy to another molecule  Ex.) NADP + + H  NADPH

38 The Calvin Cycle  The “synthesis” part of photosynthesis  These reactions don ’ t require light, therefore these reactions are called Light – Independent or Dark reactions

39 The Calvin Cycle  Reactants: ATP and NADPH (from light – dependent reactions) and CO 2  Products: high energy sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and NADP + and ADP + (which will go back to light dependent reaction for reuse)

40 Carbon Fixation  The incorporation of CO 2 into organic compounds  The Carbon in CO2 is “fixed” into the usable energy form of sugar  6 CO2 molecules will go into the cycle to produce each organic molecule of 6-Carbon sugar. ( C 6 H 12 O 6 )

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42 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis  Not enough water  Temperature  Light intensity  CO 2 levels

43 Objectives (Did we…)  Summarize the overall reactants and products of photosynthesis.  Describe the reactants and products of the light reactions.  Describe the reactants and products of the Calvin Cycle (dark reactions).  Summarize how the light reactions and Calvin cycle work together to create a continuous cycle of photosynthesis.


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