2Energy and LifePlants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.Autotrophs: organisms such as plants, which make their own foodHeterotrophs: obtain energy from the foods they consumeAll living organisms must be able to produce energy from the environment in which they live, store energy for future use, and use energy in a controlled manner.
5Chemical Energy and ATP A quick source of energy that is stored in the chemical bonds of a molecule that can be used quickly and easily by the cell is called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).ATP is an energy moleculeThe energy of ATP becomes available when the molecule is broken down.The addition and release of a phosphate group on adenosine diphosphate creates a cycle of ATP formation and breakdown. This means the cell doesn’t have to store all the ATP it needs.
6ATP ContinuedCells use this energy to make new cells, maintain homeostasis, and to power functions (like movement).The characteristics of ATP make it exceptionally useful as the basic energy source of all plant cells.
8Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery EnergyEnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP)PartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbattery
9Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery EnergyEnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP)PartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbattery
10PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis: Plants use energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates (sugars and starches) and give off oxygen as a waste product.Photosynthesis happens in 2 phases: light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions.In addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll, a molecule in chloroplasts.
12Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products Light EnergyChloroplastCO2 + H2OSugars + O2
13Light and PigmentsPlants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing molecules called pigments. The plants’ principal pigment is chlorophyll.2 types of chlorophyll: Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll bChlorophyll absorbs light very well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum. However, chlorophyll does not absorb light very well in the green region of the spectrum. Green is reflected by leaves, which is why plants look green.
14Chlorophyll Light Absorption Absorption of Light byChlorophyll a and Chlorophyll bChlorophyll bChlorophyll aVBGYOR
15The Reactions of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplastsThe Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes called thylakoids, which are arranged in stacks known as grana. The space outside of the grana is called the stroma.Proteins in the thylakoids membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters known as photosystems, which are the light collecting units of chloroplasts.
17Light Dependent Reactions Light-dependent reaction: uses light energy to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into energy carriers ATP and NADPHThe light dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes (granum) of chloroplasts.
19Calvin CycleCalvin Cycle: uses the energy carriers ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. (Calvin cycle is also called the light independent reaction)Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma, outside the grana.
20Calvin Cycle CO2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input ChloropIast 5-Carbon MoleculesRegenerated6-Carbon SugarProducedSugars and other compounds
21Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Water, light, and temperature all affect photosynthesis
22Photosynthesis Concept Map includesLight-dependentreactionsCalvin cycletakes place inusesusetake place inThylakoidmembranesStromaNADPHATPEnergy fromsunlightto produceofto produceATPNADPHO2ChloroplastsHigh-energysugars
23Photosynthesis: An Overview Light and WaterO2SugarsCO2ChloroplastChloroplastNADP+ADP + PLight-DependentReactionsCalvinCycleATPNADPH