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4.3.2. Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21 1 greek.: dialysis = dispersal semipermeable.

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Presentation on theme: "4.3.2. Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21 1 greek.: dialysis = dispersal semipermeable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 1 greek.: dialysis = dispersal semipermeable membrane lat.: semi = „half“, „partial“ und permeable = “diaphanous“ Only the small molecules are able to pass the dividing wall A molecular sieve

2 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 2 The “miracuolous” powder The super-absorbent polymer, a coarse grained powder 1g Polymer absorbs up to 1000g of water /http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superabsorber / Super-absorbent particles before (left) and after absorbing water

3 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 3 Separating colours: Chromatography Chromatography: greek:  = colour and  = to write History: During his research into chlorophyll the Russian botanist Michail Tswett (1903) separated plant pigments such chlorophyll, carotenes etc. Using a column containing calcium-carbonate he was able to separate the differently coloured dyestuffs of green leaves

4 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 4 Today automatic methods print such chromatograms What does the sample contain – and how much of it?

5 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 5 From the carob tree into to the pudding locust bean gum can absorb a hundred times it’s own weight polysaccharide consisting of mannose and galactose units Used as a thickening agent in sauces, puddings and candies

6 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 6 fats (lipids) in our blood fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids Lipids are lipophilic (lipos: greek = fett; philos = friend) our blood consists of 90% water, therefore lipids are attached to proteins for transportation if the blood consists of to many lipids, drops are formed this blood is called lipaemic blood

7 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 7 Detection of blood-fats enzymatic reaction enzyme: Lipoprotein lipase the lipoprotein lipase splits the triglyceride in glycerol More reactions follow and a red dyestuff is formed => lipaemic blood The intensity of the red colour enables a quantitative determination of the blood fat concentration

8 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 8 Synthetic balls from the other point of view Interpretation of synthetic balls cross-linked and non cross-linked

9 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 9 Phenomenon out of the kitchen Why the sauce becomes even thicker when it is heated up? Thickening a sauce

10 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 10 Starch is not soluble in cold water It falls to the bottom of a vessel and begins to swell In hot water the molecules of the starch become loose, build a lattice and so they are „fatter“ When you put acid in it, the bonds will be break and the sauce will become thinner again

11 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 11 Some more kitchen chemistry Why are carrots steamed in fat and why shouldn‘t they be cooked just in water? Carrots contain a great concentration of β- Carotene, therefore they are an excellent source for vitamin A

12 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 12 β-Carotene β-Carotene is nonpolar, and therefore its soluble in fat The human body is only able to absorb β-Carotene, if the nutrition contains fat as well => Therefore carrots are steamed in fat

13 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 13 Vitamin A β-Carotene = provitamin A The human body converts provitamin A to vitamin A

14 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 14 Unsaturated fatty acid Substances of plant origin Saturated fatty acid Substances of animal origin Quite different fats

15 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 15 Saturated fatty acidy can be packed together very tightly, therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature The double bond causes the unsaturated fatty acids to bend, they can’t be packed together tightly, therefore they are liquid at room temperature => oils

16 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 16 Fats have important functions: source of energy, the human body draws 30-35% of the needed energy from fats transport “fat-soluble” vitamins => see carrots!!! fats are the major form of energy storage in the animal organism. Fats deliver carbonate. in fats of animal origin are saturated fatty acids are predominant, but these ones are the thickeners

17 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 17 Fat hardening In the fat hardening process trans-fatty-acids (adjacent carbon- atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond) accrue as by- products (naturally only cis-fats occur) The consumption of trans-fats increases one’s risk of coronary heart diseases Margarine is produced by fat hardening

18 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 18 Colouring eggs using an onion an onion contains quercetin, which is a natural dye The eggshell contains copper, aluminium, and iron

19 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 19 Quercetin reacts with the metals in the eggshell to yield a coloured complexes  Aluminium forms yellow compounds  Iron forms brown compounds  Copper forms red compounds Through treating the egg with onionskin the egg turns brown

20 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 20 The connection maker Emulsifiers are amphipathic molecules They contain a lipophilic group (fat-loving) and a hydrophilic group (water-loving) the hydrophilic group interacts with the water, while the lipophilic group interacts with the oil. This way the emulsifier blends two liquids Micelle

21 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 21 An emulsifier stabilises an emulsion Emulsion: mixture of two immiscible substances. The surfactant emulsifier is able to blend the two liquids

22 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 22 Emulsifier are used in products of our daily life for example in cosmetics, groceries… with emulsifierwithout emulsifier

23 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 23 Milk: An Oil-in-water-emulsion The main contents of milk are water and fat Milk contains a natural emulsifier (Lecithin) Lecithins surround the globule of fat and distribute those in the milk Structure of the Lecithins

24 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 24 Bullrich-Salz Bullrich Salz -heartburn and acid-related stomach complaints medication -Over 150 years Bullrich-Salz has been traditionally used as a gentle medication Active Ingredient: Sodium Bicarbonate In 1827 the former pharmacist August Wilhelm Bullrich established the so called “Bullrich-Salz” as an universal salt Smart, popular and persuasive promotion helped “Bullrich-Salz” to become one of the most famous household remedies in Germany

25 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 25 The DNA in every mouth all animals and plants contain DNA within their cell nucleus every human being consumes with his nutrition 1g of DNA the body uses this DNA for the synthesis of human DNA fruitsplant cell (cell nucleus is marked) DNA, contained in the cell nucleus

26 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 26 Warm hands thanks to the bear The bear contains a metastable sodium acetate solution, that means more salt is dissolved than water is normally able to dissolve A mechanic disturbance of the system leads to a stable system, i.e. crystallised salt metastability: weakly stable state

27 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 27 The red ball shows the metastable system Through an input of energy, the red ball is able to roll up the little hill ( green ball), This input of energy equals the energy needed to transform the system into a stable system (blue ball), the stable system has the least energy

28 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 28 cracking the little metal plate (disturbing the system) causes crystallisation => stable system Through crystallisation energy is released in the form of heat This way the bear keeps our hands warm!!

29 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 29 Active component: Aluminium-chlorohydrate Al 2 (OH) 5 Cl

30 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 30 Aluminium-chloride-hexahydrate Aluminium-Chlorohydrate is based on Aluminium- chlorid-hexahydrate. This is (AlCl 3 · 6 H 2 O) Alumimium-chloride- hexahydrate can be imagined as a metal-complex lat. Complexus = enclose, embrace In this kind of complex Aluminium is weakly connected to six surrounding H 2 O-molecules.

31 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 31 What is the effect of Aluminium in a deodorant?? Solutions of Aluminium-chloride-hexahydrate are found to be acidic A solution added with an indicator indicates the acidity

32 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 32 Sweat consists of Proteins Under native conditions proteins are soluble Aluminium is able to change those native With Aluminium the solution becomes acidic and therefore the structure of the proteins is changing ; this is called denaturation Soluble proteins denaturierung.vscml.html

33 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 33  Aluminium forms a gel plug in the duct of the sweat gland  The plugs prevent the gland from excreting  This characteristic of aluminium is called adstringent Denaturation causes the proteins to fold themselves in a different way The proteins are not soluble anymore et.vlu/Page/vsc/de/ch/8/bc/faltung/denaturierung.vscml.html

34 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 34 Mallebrin Used to treat an inflammation of the throat Active ingredient: aluminium-chloride → Aluminium-chloride protects the mucous membranes against germs → Aluminium initiates the generation of a protective layer of proteins on the surface of the cells Aluminium can even cure a sore throat

35 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 Do Energy Drinks really let you fly?

36 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 36 Ingredients of a common energy drink per 250mL can sugar water 80 mg caffeine This is equal to the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee 1000 mg Taurine...and Taurine is supposed to let you fly! Do Energy Drinks really let you fly?

37 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C Aminoethanesulfonic acid Derivative of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine white crystal substance human body produces Taurine out of the amino acid cysteine necessary for production of bile acid. in 1827 Chemists isolated it from the gall bladder of a bull today it is produced out of Ethene, Ammonia and Sodium sulfite lat.: Bos taurus; the bull Taurine

38 Promoting Chemistry- Additional Sources-EN-1.0 CITIES Project N CP DE–COMENIUS–C21 38 Athletes use it to increase their performance. Through taurine weightlifters alleviate muscle fatigue. Taurine regulates the amount of water in the muscle cells. This contributes an effective protein synthesis. Marathon runners use Taurine to increase the stroke volume of their heart. Scientists do not agree, whether taurine is really responsible for the effect of energy drinks or not. Some scientists also say that the mixture of caffeine and taurine in the drinks could be responsible for this secondary effect. Taurin and ist effects


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