Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Basic Chemistry Chapter 2. Atoms Matter All matter is made of atoms All matter is made of atomsAtoms Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Basic Chemistry Chapter 2. Atoms Matter All matter is made of atoms All matter is made of atomsAtoms Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Chemistry Chapter 2

2 Atoms Matter All matter is made of atoms All matter is made of atomsAtoms Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutronsElements Elements are pure substances made of only one kind of atom Elements are pure substances made of only one kind of atom

3 Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms linked by covalent bonds Molecules are groups of atoms linked by covalent bonds Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonding occurs between polar molecules Hydrogen bonding occurs between polar molecules Ionic Bonds An ion is a charged atom or molecule. Ions of opposite charge may form an ionic bond An ion is a charged atom or molecule. Ions of opposite charge may form an ionic bond

4 Water in Living Things Storage of Water Water, which is essential for life, stores heat efficiently and binds to itself and other substances Water, which is essential for life, stores heat efficiently and binds to itself and other substances Cohesion – sticks to itself Adhesion – different substances stick together

5 Aqueous Solutions Polarity Water dissolves polar molecules and ionic compounds Water dissolves polar molecules and ionic compounds Acids and Bases Acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Bases decrease the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. The pH scale measures the strength of acids and bases Acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Bases decrease the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. The pH scale measures the strength of acids and bases

6 Carbon Compounds Carbohydrates Carbohydrates, such as glucose, are a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organisms Carbohydrates, such as glucose, are a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organismsLipids Lipids are nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of cell membranes Lipids are nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of cell membranesProteins Proteins are chains of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a proteins shape and specific function Proteins are chains of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a proteins shape and specific function Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary informationATP ATP is the main energy currency of cells ATP is the main energy currency of cells

7 Molecular Chains Carbon chains can be 1 or 2 carbon atoms or thousands of carbon atoms Smaller molecules bond together and are known as a polymer Many polymers are formed by condensation = H removed from one, OH removed from another so H 2 O is pulled out Opposite is called Hydrolysis

8 Condensation

9 Hydrolysis

10 Carbohydrates Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen only in a ratio of 1:2:1 C 6 H 12 O 6, C 6 H 12 O 6, Provide energy

11 Monosaccharide = building block Called Simple Sugars (Glucose, Fructose) Called Simple Sugars (Glucose, Fructose)

12 Disaccharide = 2 monosaccharides Fructose + Glucose Sucrose Fructose + Glucose Sucrose

13 Polysaccharide = polymer of many monosaccharides Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose

14 Lipids Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen, small amount of Oxygen Nonpolar molecules so dont dissolve in water Energy storage, protection, insulation Major component of membranes Major component of membranes

15 Fatty Acids and Glycerol = building block

16 If all Carbons have single bonds = saturated Fats from animals; solids at room temp. Fats from animals; solids at room temp.

17 If there is a double bond = unsaturated Oils from plants; Liquids are room temp. (Healthier?) Oils from plants; Liquids are room temp. (Healthier?)

18 More than 1 double bond = polyunsaturated

19

20 Proteins Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and sometimes Sulfur Amino Acids = building block 20; Combine using condensation and form a peptide bond 20; Combine using condensation and form a peptide bond Sequence determines protein Sequence determines protein Tissue and organ structure and cell metabolism

21 Protein Examples Hemoglobin Carries oxygen in your blood Carries oxygen in your blood Made in bone marrow Made in bone marrow Contains iron; too little iron = anemic Contains iron; too little iron = anemic

22 Protein Examples Insulin Hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in your blood; treats diabetes Hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in your blood; treats diabetes Secreted by pancreas Secreted by pancreas Tells other cells to absorb glucose (no insulin = no energy absorbed) Tells other cells to absorb glucose (no insulin = no energy absorbed) These cells (liver, muscle, and fat) then store it as glycogen and stop using fat as energy No or low Insulin, no glucose uptake, fat used as energy Type I Diabetes – Insulin deficiency; shots Type II – Insulin resistance; other methods

23 Special Protein = Enzymes Protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction (may speed up) Many lower the Activation Energy Activity depends on temperature, enzyme concentration, and pH Specific to certain substrates Works like a lock and key Amino acids make proteins (enzyme) folded in a certain way which determines job

24

25 Energy for Life Processes Energy in Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions absorb or release energy Chemical Reactions absorb or release energy Activation Energy Starting a chemical reaction requires activation energy Starting a chemical reaction requires activation energy

26 Enzyme-Substrate Complex

27 Nucleic Acids Stores cellular information in the form of a code DNA and RNA DNA and RNA Nucleotides = building blocks Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous in 3 parts Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous in 3 parts Nitrogenous Base Simple Sugar Phosphate Group

28

29 How to Identify Proteins turn a blue Biuret solution to pink- purple Starches (carbohydrates) show up bluish/black when drops of iodine are added Starches (carbohydrates) show up bluish/black when drops of iodine are added Sugars (carbohydrates) turn a blue Benedicts solution an orange-brown Lipids leave a grease spot on brown paper


Download ppt "Basic Chemistry Chapter 2. Atoms Matter All matter is made of atoms All matter is made of atomsAtoms Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google