Carbohydrates Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. (Wikipedia Dictionary)
Carbohydrates; Structure Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, in the ratio of CH2O. The basic form of carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides. Ex;
Carbohydrates; Bonding The bonds within the molecules of Carbohydrates are covalent bonds, between two CH (carbon and hydrogen) molecules through the process of Dehydration Synthesis.
Carbohydrates; Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration Synthesis is the process that builds polymers by joining monomers together. The removal of H20, (hydrogen from the end of one molecules and hydroxide from the end of another), makes it possible for the exposed ends of the molecules to be joined.
Carbohydrates; Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is the opposite process of Dehydration synthesis. Instead of removing H20, it is added to break large polymers apart. Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis are called enzymatic reactions.
Carbohydrates; Monomers Monomers are unit molecules. Monomers for Carbohydrates are Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, and Ribose. Ex;
Carbohydrates; Polymers Polymers of Carbohydrates include Cellulose, Starch and Glycogen. More than 50% of all the carbon in plants is made up of Cellulose. Cellulose’s polymer chain is linear. Starch is a Carbohydrate stored in plants. It’s polymer chain is branched. Animal livers and muscle cells store glucose as glycogen. It is a reverse Carbohydrate, and can be drawn upon when energy is needed. Glycogen’s polymer structure is highly branched.
Carbohydrates; Polymers cont. Polymers of Carbohydrates Ex;
Carbohydrates; In Living Organisms Through photosynthesis, plants store and convert glucose and starch into cellulose. Animals or other consumers eat Carbohydrates and it becomes glucose after breaking polysaccharides. Metabolic processes are fuel by ATP that has been converted from Glucose during Cellular Respiration. Excess is stored in the liver as Glycogen.
Lipids Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids. (Wikipedia Dictionary)
Lipids; Structure Lipids consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a c-chain. At the end of the chain is the carboxyl group (CO2H). Ex;
Lipids; Structure cont. There are three types of Lipids; o Fatty Acids o Steroids o Phospholipids Fatty Acids can be saturated of unsaturated. Saturated means that there are no double bonds, and the carbon chain is “saturated” with hydrogens. Saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated means that there is one or more double bonds, therefore the carbon chain can not have the maximum amount of hydrogens. Unsaturated fatty acids are liquid at room temperature.
Lipids; Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration Synthesis for Carbohydrates is the same process Lipids. Water (H2O) is removed from the combination of two molecules, leaving room for the two monomers to join. Ex;
Lipids; Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is the opposite of Dehydration Synthesis. Water (H2O) is added to break apart large polymers. Ex;
Lipids; Monomers Monomers for Lipids in this example are Glycerol for the head, water (H2O) for the connecter, and a fatty acid. Ex;
Lipids; Polymers Lipids are not polymer molecules because they are linked side by side, not linked in a chain going left or right (attached by the ends).
Lipids; In Living Organisms Lipids are needed in the form of vitamins for metabolism. Makes up the structural component of cell membranes. Used for energy storage. Protect against shock and act as insulation conductors in cells and tissues.
Proteins Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, esp. as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies. (Wikipedia Dictionary)
Proteins; Structure Proteins are polymers of Amino Acids that form a chain through covalently linked peptide bonds. Most proteins have over 100 Amino Acids in their structure. Proteins have both Structural and Functional parts in a cell. There are many different structures of Proteins.
Proteins; Structural and Functional Proteins Structural proteins form parts of structures. Keratin is a Protein that is a component of finger nails and hair. Collagen is a Protein that is found in connective tissues like ligaments. Functional proteins have specific metabolic roles. Functional proteins can be enzymes, antibodies, or transport molecules.
Proteins; Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration synthesis is the same process for Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins. Water (H2O) is removed from a combination of the two molecules, making it possible for the two molecules to bond. Ex;
Proteins; Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is the reverse process to Dehydration Synthesis. Water (H2O) is added to break apart a large polymer. Ex;
Proteins; Monomers Monomers of Proteins are Amino Acids. There are 20 Amino Acids in total, leaving room for MANY variations or proteins. Amino Acids are in three groups: Amino group, Carboxyl group, and R-group.
Proteins; Polymers Polymers of Proteins are when two or more Amino Acids join together through peptide bonds. There are four types of structures for polypeptides: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quarternary.
Proteins; Polypeptides A Primary Structure is a simple, linear chain of amino acids. A Secondary Structure is becomes twisted due to peptide bonds. Hydrogen bonds make either a spiral/spring like shape called the Alpha Helix, or a more linear shape called a Beta Pleated Sheet. A tertiary Structure forms as the Alpha Helix gets longer, making kinks in the spiral pattern because some Amino Acids will not fit otherwise. This creates a spherical or globular shape. A Quarternary Structure is groups of Tertiary Structures. (Haemoglobins.)
Proteins; In Living Organisms Proteins are used in cell enzymes, catalyzing chemical reactions. Proteins are involved in cell signaling. Necessary in animal diets to provide essential Amino Acids from foods.