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Principles of Adult Learning By Dr Rakesh Kumar. Framework: 1.Introduction 2.History 3.Andragogy 4.Andragogy vs Pedagogy 5.Theories of Adult Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Adult Learning By Dr Rakesh Kumar. Framework: 1.Introduction 2.History 3.Andragogy 4.Andragogy vs Pedagogy 5.Theories of Adult Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Adult Learning By Dr Rakesh Kumar

2 Framework: 1.Introduction 2.History 3.Andragogy 4.Andragogy vs Pedagogy 5.Theories of Adult Learning 6.Principles of Adult Learning 7.Techniques of Adult Learning 8.References 1.Introduction 2.History 3.Andragogy 4.Andragogy vs Pedagogy 5.Theories of Adult Learning 6.Principles of Adult Learning 7.Techniques of Adult Learning 8.References

3 Introduction Increasing pace of change in society and advancing technology requires adult workers to have more training and education Most of educators are not aware of how to teach adults Adult learning has its own characteristics, methods, and approaches A teacher of adults requires some basic principles and concepts that can be used to facilitate adult learning with all different setting and audiences

4 History of Adult Learning:  German grammar teacher Alexander Kapp termed ‘Andragogy’ to describe Plato’s educational theory  German, Social Scientist, Eugen Rosenstock claimed that “adult education required special teachers, special methods, and a special philosophy.”  1968 – Malcolm Knowles - principle expert on andragogy Used ‘Andragogy’ in an article in Adult Leadership.  Term ‘Life-long learning’ was coined – to describe the phenomenon of adult learning.  : Brookfield (1986), Mezirow (1991), Lawler (1991) and Merriam (1999) addressed the concept and discussed how it can be used to facilitate adult learning.

5 What is Andragogy? Andragogy derived from the Greek word “aner” meaning “man” “agogus” meaning “leading” Definition-  Art and science of helping adults learn. Pedagogy is defined as the art and science of teaching children

6 Andragogy Vs Pedagogy

7 Adult Learning Characteristics Adults differ from children as learners.

8 Theories of Adult Learning 1.Self-directed learning 2.Reflection practice 3.Experiential learning 4.Self efficacy 5.Constructivism New Theories Learning to learn Cross Cultural Adult Learning Practical Theorizing Distance Learning

9 Self directed learning Learning tasks are largely within the learners' control Adults are empowered to accept personal responsibility for their own learning, personal autonomy, and individual choice Five step model of self directed learning: 1. diagnosing learning needs 2. formulating learning needs 3. identifying human material resources for learning 4. choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies 5. evaluating learning outcomes

10 Reflective practice Described by Donald Schön Unexpected events or surprises trigger two kinds of reflection 1.Immediate Reflection- ability to learn and develop continually by creatively applying current and past experiences and reasoning to unfamiliar events while they are occurring 2.Late Reflection – a process of thinking back and analyzing past situation with unexpected event Helps continually reshape approaches and develop wisdom Vehicles for reflective practice: debriefing with peers or learners, seeking feedback from learners on a regular basis, and keeping a journal

11 Experiential Learning Concrete Experience Reflective Observation Abstract Concept- ualisation Active Experimenta- tion New Learning

12 Self efficacy 1.Adult’s action depend on their own judgment of their ability to deal with different situations 2.Actions include what they choose to do, how much effort they invest in activities, how long they persist in the face of adversity, and whether they approach the tasks anxiously or assuredly. 3.These judgments, called “self efficacy,” arise from four main information sources: 1.Performance attainments 2.observations of other people 3.Verbal persuasion 4.Physiological state

13 Constructivism 1.Teacher – a facilitator of learning 2.Learning based on prior knowledge 3.Active participation of students in their learning through problem solving and group interaction 4.Sufficient time must be provided for in­depth examination of new experiences

14 Knowle’s principles of adult learning Need to Know Self-Concept Role of Experience Readiness to Learn Orientation to Learning Motivation to Learn Need to Know Self-Concept Role of Experience Readiness to Learn Orientation to Learning Motivation to Learn

15 Pike's Laws of Adult Learning Robert W. Pike (1989)- author of the book ‘Creative Training Techniques’ Law 1: Adults are babies with big bodies Law 2: People do not argue with their own data Law 3: Learning is directly proportional to the amount of fun you are having Law 4: Learning has not taken place until behavior has changed Robert W. Pike (1989)- author of the book ‘Creative Training Techniques’ Law 1: Adults are babies with big bodies Law 2: People do not argue with their own data Law 3: Learning is directly proportional to the amount of fun you are having Law 4: Learning has not taken place until behavior has changed

16 Adult Learning Techniques  Case study  Team-based learning  Problem-solving exercises  Reflective discourse  Simulations  Role play  Brainstorming  Concept Map  Problem Based learning  Portfolio Learning  Case study  Team-based learning  Problem-solving exercises  Reflective discourse  Simulations  Role play  Brainstorming  Concept Map  Problem Based learning  Portfolio Learning  Icebreaker  Group Discussion  Think, Pair, Share  Polling the class  Plus/Delta  Compare & contrast  Find primary data, original sources  Questioning techniques  Icebreaker  Group Discussion  Think, Pair, Share  Polling the class  Plus/Delta  Compare & contrast  Find primary data, original sources  Questioning techniques

17 Icebreaker A method of "introduction" to achieve a relaxed, friendly atmosphere It breaks down the formality of meetings Group Discussion A method employed to explore all avenues of a particular subject Advantages: 1.Everyone has the opportunity to participate in the discussion 2.Everyone considers that he is contributing to the goal of progress 3.Chairman in each group gains experience in leading a discussion 4.Spokesman in each group gains experience in summarizing and presentation the group's discussions

18 A method, useful in large or small meetings, to stimulate the creative ability of the members It can break established patterns of thinking Criticism are not allowed in between Advantage: Achieve the maximum number of ideas for a problem in the shortest possible time It improves creative powers It improves communication between people Brainstorming

19 A case study is a written description of a situation that contains a number of problems It provides participants with a basis for studying a situation, analyzing its important aspects, and reaching various conclusions Advantages: It improves ability to perceive the interrelations between the factors mentioned It help participants to distinguish relevant material from the superfluous Enable to see matters from the other's point of view as well Case Study

20 This method creates team building and provides an ideal learning and review experience. Advantages: Enables to understand the issue and convey it in a creative and entertaining way A live presentation of a topic makes participants retain aspects in their minds for longer time Team based learning

21 Think, Pair, Share Pose a question or problem and ask students to discuss with another person, often with a goal or criteria provided by the teacher Polling the class Ask a question and observe distribution of collective responses – show of hands, number/color cards, electronic devices etc Problem-solving exercises Provide a problem that stimulates exploration in a specific context

22 Plus/Delta List what is to be continued or what is understood (+) and what needs to be changed or reviewed further (Δ) Find primary data, original sources – Ask student to read the original work rather than a summation or distillation of it

23 Concept maps Graphic representation of ideas, actions and situations with words, often within geometric shapes with arrows between them Questioning techniques What if …. – Change the situation and ask the students what if this or that were the case, how would that affect your understanding and thinking? Compare and contrast – ask students to describe two different situations that connect to some common link or idea

24 Reflective discourse The dialogue, exploration and discussion among group members during which understanding is shared, questioned and clarified. Simulations Using artificial models and objects to practice and learn something Role play Members of a group assume the role of another person in a particular defined situation or setting and act

25 Problem Based Learning A focused experiential learning It engages students as stakeholders It organizes curriculum around this holistic problem Teacher act as facilitator

26 Steps in PBL

27 Impact of PBL on Learners 1.Increases Motivation 2.Makes Learning Relevant to the Real World 3.PBL offers students an obvious answer to their questions 4.Promotes Higher Order Thinking- critical and creative thinking 5.Students gather information significant to the problem and assess its credibility and validity. 6.Encourages Learning How to Learn

28 Portfolio-based learning A portfolio is a collection of evidence that represents achievement and learning within a course or programme of study Portfolio-based learning tends to draw heavily on experiential learning theory It require: – Gathering and presentation of evidence – An element of critical reflection or commentary – It contains direct evidence of work and learning

29 From theory to practice

30 References Brookfield, Stephen (1995). Adult learning: an overview [Electronic version]. Retrieved May 16, _AdultLearning.cfm _AdultLearning.cfm Fidishun, Dolores (n.d). Andragogy and technology: integrating adult learning theory as we teach with technology [Electronic version]. Retrieved May 16, Knowles, Malcolm. (1973). The adult learner: a neglected species. 2 nd edition, Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing. Lawler, Patricia A The Keys to Adult Learning: Theory and Practical Strategies. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools. Knowles, Malcolm S., Elwood F. Holton III, and Richard A. Swanson The Adult Learner. Houston: Gulf Publishing.


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