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Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.1 Instructional Design Chapter 3: Learner, Task, and Context Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.1 Instructional Design Chapter 3: Learner, Task, and Context Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.1 Instructional Design Chapter 3: Learner, Task, and Context Analysis

2 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.2  Describe the various components of learner analysis.  Describe the purpose of learner, task, and context analysis.  Differentiate between the three schools of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.  Define the VAK’s models’ three learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.  Differentiate between Kolb’s four learner styles: diverger, assimilator, accommodator, and converger. Objectives

3 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.3  Describe the four steps in a task-analysis procedure.  State the advantages and limitations of hierarchical task analysis.  Describe the components of context: physical, technical, socio cultural, resources, and constraints.  Differentiate between the types of context: pre- instructional, instructional, and post-instructional.  Perform learner, task, and context analysis for a specific course and the learner segment. Objectives (cont.)

4 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.4  Learner analysis is the process of analyzing the needs of the learners.  The purpose of learner analysis is to:  Determine the current ability, competence, knowledge, and skills of the learners.  Identify dominant learner characteristics and behavior.  Make decisions about how to teach effectively.  Use multiple methodologies in the course to appeal to the learners. Learner Analysis

5 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.5  The components of learner analysis are:  Demographics: General characteristics of learners  Specific entry competencies: Skills and knowledge that the learners possess before taking the course  Motivation and attitude: Psychological make up of learners Components of Learner Analysis

6 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.6  Three dominant schools of thought that trace the evolution of the theory of learning are:  Behaviorism: Assumes that human behavior is predictable and structured.  Cognitivism: Is based on the mental models, schemes, or structures that exist in the minds of learners.  Constructivism: Assumes that learners create new ideas based on their experiences. Three Schools of Learning

7 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.7  Andragogy deals with the art and science of adult learning.  The Andragogy assumptions are:  Need to know: Before they begin to learn anything, adults should know why they need to learn.  Self-concept: Adults perceive themselves as self- directed and motivated.  Role of learner’s experience: Adults use their experiences as a resource of learning.  Readiness to learn: Adults are often ready to learn things that help them in their lives. Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy Assumptions

8 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.8  Experiential learning cycle is similar to the constructivist school of learning.  The following figure shows the four stages of the experiential learning cycle: David Kolb’s Experiential Life Cycle

9 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.9  Two commonly used learning styles are:  The VAK model:This model classifies learning styles into three types: visual, auditory, and kinesthesic.  David Kolb's model of learning styles: David Kolb proposed four four learner styles: divergers, assimilators, convergers, and accomodators. Types of Learning Styles

10 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.10 The following figure depicts Kolb’s learning styles: Types of Learning Styles (cont.)

11 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.11  Task analysis is the process of breaking a complex task into small and simple components.  The purpose of task analysis is to define the content, the course objectives, and determine the instructional strategy and medium.  Types of task analysis:  Hierarchical: Organizes tasks in a hierarchical structure  Procedural: Involves developing a sequential list of steps, both physical and mental  Critical Incident: Identifies behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individuals Task Analysis

12 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.12 The following figure depicts a task analysis procedure: Task Analysis (cont.)

13 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.13  Task analysis should have the following components:  Tasks performed by the audience in connection with the subject/topic being taught  Tasks broken into sub tasks, if required  Tasks that are not overt tasks, but are planning tasks or decision-making tasks  Troubleshooting tasks or the problems faced while completing the tasks  Key skills, behaviors, and attitudes required to complete the tasks Components of Task Analysis

14 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.14  Context analysis is the process of collecting relevant information about the environment in which learners will be required to perform.  Its purpose is to determine the circumstances in which the learners work and inform the instructions.  Methods of performing context analysis:  Interviews with learners or experts  Observing learners in their jobs  Reading published reports about learners and their work settings Context Analysis

15 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.15  The following table lists the descriptions of both types of methods of context analysis: Methods of Context Analysis

16 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.16  The components of context analysis are:  Physical: Proves the importance of physical comfort on performance  Technical: Represents the technical environment in which the learner learns and later performs  Socio-cultural context: Represents friends and peer groups with whom learners interact  Resources: Represents the instructional support and the opportunities and incentives for use  Constraints: Represents the financial and time- related constraints Components of Context Analysis

17 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.17  Pre-instructional: The context that exists before the course begins  Instructional: The context that exists during the course  Post-instructional: The context in which learners have to apply their skills after finishing the course Types of Context Analysis

18 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.18  Learner analysis is the process of finding out relevant information about the learners.  The art and science of helping adults to learn is called Andragogy.  The purpose of learner analysis is to:  Determine the knowledge and skills the learners have before taking the course.  Identify dominant learner characteristics and behaviors.  Make instructional design decisions. Summary

19 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.19  David Kolb’s experiential learning cycle proposes that adults learn through their experiences.  Learners learn in different ways called learner styles.  Task analysis is the process of examining the tasks that a learner performs in relation to the subject of the course.  The three schools of learning are:  Behaviorism  Cognitivism  Constructivism Summary (cont.)

20 Learner,Task, and Context Analysis 3.20  The purpose of task analysis is to bridge the gap between what the learner does and what the course is teaching.  Context analysis is the process of collecting relevant information about the environment in which the learners will be required to perform.  The purpose of context analysis is to design the instruction in such a way that the course is as close to real life as possible. Summary (cont.)

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