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Andragogy: The Adult Learner Online Course Design ______________________________ Renuka Kumar Associate Professor Community College of Baltimore County.

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Presentation on theme: "Andragogy: The Adult Learner Online Course Design ______________________________ Renuka Kumar Associate Professor Community College of Baltimore County."— Presentation transcript:

1 Andragogy: The Adult Learner Online Course Design ______________________________ Renuka Kumar Associate Professor Community College of Baltimore County Maryland

2 Agenda _______________________________ Pedagogy vs. Andragogy What is Andragogy? Why Andragogy? Five Assumptions of Andragogy o Define assumption o Pedagogy vs. Andragogy o Implications for Online Instruction o Online Course Design Conclusion Discussion 2

3 Pedagogy vs. Andragogy _______________________________________ Pedagogy o The method and practice of teaching. Focus on teaching. Andragogy o The art and science of helping adults learn. Focus on learning. 3

4 What is Andragogy? _______________________________________ Set of assumptions about how adults learn o 1833 - Alexander Kapp Plato’s educational theories o 1920s - Eugen Rosenstock Theory of adult education o 1970s - Malcolm Knowles Popularized in the US 4

5 Why Andragogy? _______________________________________ 7.1 million online students -Fall 2012 30% of all students in higher education 80% above age 25 5

6 Five Assumptions of Andragogy _______________________________________ Characteristics of adult learners: 1.Self-directed 2.Bring experience 3.Ready to learn 4.Problem oriented 5.Motivated to learn 6

7 Assumption 1 ______________________________ Self-Directed 7

8 Assumption 1 - Self-Directed _______________________________________ Adult learners: are increasingly independent. need to be actively involved in decisions that affect them. believe they are responsible for their lives. 8

9 Assumption 1 - Self-Directed _______________________________________ Pedagogy o The learner is dependent upon the instructor for all learning. o The teacher/instructor assumes full responsibility for what is taught and how it is learned. o The teacher/instructor evaluates learning. Source : dravsped.pdf Andragogy o The learner is self- directed. o The learner is responsible for his/her own learning. o Self-evaluation is characteristic of this approach. 9

10 Assumption 1 - Self-Directed _______________________________________ Implications for online instruction Curriculum to focus on process – not content Variety of learning activities Facilitator - an equal and an expert Collaborative and welcoming learning environment Ongoing guidance and support 10

11 Assumption 1 - Self-Directed ___________________________________________ Online Course Design Syllabus should clearly provide: o course expectations. o schedule with due dates. o assignments with grading criteria. o guidelines for online communication. o contact information for the facilitator. o outline response time. 11

12 Assumption 1 - Self-Directed ___________________________________________ Online Course Design (contd) Facilitators should: o be available online during the first few days. o welcome each learner individually to the class. o encourage communication between learners. o maintain contact with the learners weekly. o establish a chat room or online “café”. o provide learning objectives for all assignments. 12

13 Assumption 2: ______________________________ Bring Experience 13

14 Assumption 2 - Bring Experience ___________________________________________ Adults bring life and job experience with them. This experience is a resource for learning. 14

15 Assumption 2 - Bring Experience _______________________________________ Pedagogy o The learner comes to the activity with little experience that could be tapped as a resource for learning. o The experience of the instructor is most influential. Source : nt/andravsped.pdf Andragogy o The learner brings a greater volume and quality of experience. o Adults are a rich resource for one another. o Different experiences assure diversity in groups of adults. o Experience becomes the source of self-identify. 15

16 Assumption 2 - Bring Experience _______________________________________ Implications for online instruction Provide opportunities to use and share their knowledge and experience. Create an environment to freely express opinions and share ideas. 16

17 Assumption 2 - Bring Experience ___________________________________________ Online Course Design Types of assignments: o group projects o reflective activities o interactive discussions Discussion should encourage real-life applications. Spur discussion to encourage analytical thinking. Provide weekly feedback to discussions. 17

18 Assumption 3 ______________________________ Ready to Learn 18

19 Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn ___________________________________________ Adults: o experience triggers to learn something new – birth, divorce, loss of job. o want to learn what they can apply in their real- life situations. 19

20 Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn _______________________________________ Pedagogy o Students are told what they have to learn in order to advance to the next level of mastery. Source : nt/andravsped.pdf Andragogy o Any change is likely to trigger a readiness to learn. o The need to know in order to perform more effectively in some aspect of one’s life is important. o Ability to assess gaps between where one is now and where one wants and needs to be. 20

21 Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn _______________________________________ Implications for online instruction Facilitators should: o realize that each learner enters the course for a specific reason. o acknowledge the range of different backgrounds. 21

22 Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn ___________________________________________ Online Course Design ● Communicate course expectations clearly. ● Provide links to resources. ● Ask learners what they need to learn. ● Lessons should relate to learners needs and goals. ● Accommodate multiple learning styles. 22

23 Assumption 4 ______________________________ Problem-Oriented 23

24 Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented ___________________________________________ Adults are: o life-centered (task-oriented, problem-centered). o want to learn what will help them perform daily tasks or problems. 24

25 Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented ___________________________________________ Pedagogy o Learning is a process of acquiring prescribed subject matter. o Content units are sequenced according to the logic of the subject matter. Source : dravsped.pdf Andragogy o Learners want to perform a task, solve a problem, live in a more satisfying way. o Learning must have relevance to real-life tasks. o Learning is organized around life/work situations rather than subject matter units. 25

26 Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented ___________________________________________ Implications for online instruction Curriculum - process based not content based. Use real-life examples or situations Draw on learner’s personal experiences. 26

27 Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented ___________________________________________ Online Course Design Use active learning strategies: o case studies o problem solving o simulations ● Group projects - draw on personal experience. ● Present and solve “real world” problems. ● Share learning objectives for every assignment. ● Create meaningful work (avoid busy work). 27

28 Assumption 5 ______________________________ Motivated to Learn 28

29 Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn ___________________________________________ External motivators o better jobs and higher salaries Internal motivators o increased job satisfaction, self-esteem 29

30 Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn __________________________________________ Pedagogy o Primarily motivated by external pressures, competition for grades, and the consequences of failure. Source : nt/andravsped.pdf Andragogy o Internal motivators: self- esteem, recognition, better quality of life, self-confidence, self- actualization. 30

31 Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn __________________________________________ Implications for online instruction Have activities that build self-esteem. Recognize the need of learners to be appreciated. Get learner input into lessons. Inform learners why topic is important. 31

32 Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn __________________________________________ Online Course Design Use a friendly, first person style of writing. Incorporate ongoing evaluation from learners. Offer multiple assessment strategies. Tell why topic or link is important. Provide practical information with examples. Recognize learners contributions once a week. Offer a variety of learning support. 32

33 Conclusion ___________________________________________ Andragogy should be used as a starting point. Know needs, backgrounds, and expectations of learners. Create learner centered educational environment. Develop course that allows adult learners to be: o actively engaged o motivated o able to gain and share experiences, and o collaborative. 33

34 Conclusion (contd) _______________________________________ Pedagogy vs. andragogy 34

35 References _______________________________________ Blondy, L. (2007). Evaluation and Application of Andragogical Assumptions to the Adult Online Learning Environment. Journal of Interactive Online Learning 6 (2). Burge, L. (1988). Beyond Andragogy: Some Explorations for Distance Learning Design. Journal of Distance Education 3 (1): 5–23. The Learning House, Inc.(2012). Online College Students 2012. Retrieved from lege%20Students%202012.pdf Florida Tech (n.a.). Pedagogy vs. Andragogy. Retrieved from Perret, Joe (2008). Andragogy and Online Teaching. Retrieved from‎ Sheldon, L. (2013). Andragogy: Welcoming Adult Learners and their Experiences. Retrieved from Sheldon.pptx‎ 35

36 Discussion ______________________________ 36

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