Presentation on theme: "Refugees and Migration. Persons of concern In 2005, there were approximately 20 million people worldwide who had been identified by the United Nations."— Presentation transcript:
Persons of concern In 2005, there were approximately 20 million people worldwide who had been identified by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as persons of concern. They included refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons.
Refugee – a person who is seeking refuge Convention – an agreement Terms and definitions Internally displaced person (IDP) – a person who has lost their home but remains inside their country Persons of concern – stateless and war-affected populations Asylum seekers – people who believe they are at risk of persecution
This graph shows the estimated number of refugees and total persons of concern to UNHCR worldwide. How many persons of concern are there?
Why do you think there is no data for ‘total persons of concern’ before 1995? How many persons of concern are there?
This graph shows a breakdown of the number of persons of concern to UNHCR in 2005. How many persons of concern are there? 10 m 8 m 6 m 4 m 2 m 0 m
Describe the trends shown in the graph. How many persons of concern are there? 10 m 8 m 6 m 4 m 2 m 0 m
How many persons of concern are there? 10 m 8 m 6 m 4 m 2 m 0 m Calculate approximate totals for each region, and each category of persons of concern.
How many persons of concern are there? RegionTotal Africa5 169 300 Asia8 603 600 Europe3 666 700 Latin America & Caribbean 2 513 000 Northern America 716 800 Oceania82 500 Total20 751 900 Refugees3 394 400 Asylum-seekers773 500 Returned refugees1 105 500 IDPs and others of concern 10 478 500 Calculate approximate totals for each region, and each category of persons of concern.
How many persons of concern are there? In which three continents are approximately 90% of total persons of concern? Answer – Asia, Africa and Europe Refugees3 394 400 Asylum-seekers773 500 Returned refugees1 105 500 IDPs and others of concern 10 478 500 RegionTotal Africa5 169 300 Asia8 603 600 Europe3 666 700 Latin America & Caribbean 2 513 000 Northern America 716 800 Oceania82 500 Total20 751 900
True or false? A person who leaves a country voluntarily to seek a better life in a new country would be considered a refugee. Answer – False In 2005, approximately 25% of the world’s refugees were from Africa. Answer – True
True or false? An internally displaced person is someone who has lost their home but remains inside their country. Answer – True A person who has fled their country of origin because they were tortured for speaking out against their government would be considered a refugee. Answer – True
People who have fled political persecution but remain within their country are known as asylum seekers. Answer – False The number of refugees worldwide has continuously increased since 1980. Answer – False True or false?
Australia and migration Each year, many people around the world each year move from one country to another – not because they are forced to, but because they choose to. The movement of people out of a country is known as emigration.
Australia and migration Some people emigrate from Australia, but many more migrate here.
Australia and migration In fact, apart from its indigenous population, Australia is a land of migrants. We have a diverse multicultural population. For centuries migrants have been coming to Australia from all over the world. Together, migrants have created huge economic and social change in this country.
Where do migrants come from? Migrants to Australia come from many different countries. Immediately after World War 2, large numbers of migrants from European nations arrived here. Many people came from countries that had been devastated during the war. The United Kingdom has always been a major source of migrants to Australia. However, since mid last century, many migrants have come from different parts of the world.
Where do migrants come from? During the 1970s, many migrants came from Vietnam. The war there had left many people displaced. Migration to Australia from Vietnam and other parts of Asia has continued. More recently, increasing numbers of migrants have come from the Middle East and Africa. Do you think Australia had an obligation to accept migrants from Vietnam after the war? Why?
There are many different reasons (push and pull factors) behind migration to this country. After World War 2, the effects of war in Europe were push factors for migrants to come to Australia. However, there were also pull factors. What are push and pull factors? What are some examples of push and pull factors? Where do migrants come from?
The Snowy River Scheme was a major engineering project, and provided employment for many thousands of migrant workers. The Australian government was concerned that the country needed to populate, and migrants were one way to create a quick population increase. Where do migrants come from? What was the Snowy River Scheme? Who benefited from the project?
Where do migrants come from? This table shows the country of birth of settler arrivals to Australia in 1982–3 and 2004–5. Complete the table by calculating each percentage. 1982–32004–5 No.% % China1 20011 100 India1 7009 400 New Zealand6 90017 300 South Africa2 8004 600 United Kingdom26 40018 200 Vietnam8 7002 200 ALL SETTLER ARRIVALS93 00093 900 Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 1 % 2 % 7 % 3 % 28 % 9 % 100 % 12 % 10 % 18 % 5 % 19 % 2 % 100 %
Eligibility There are a number of categories of eligibility for migrants coming to Australia. These categories include family. For example, when someone from overseas marries an Australian person, or when other relatives such as parents are permitted to reunite with people living here.
Eligibility Skilled is another eligibility category. For example, when there is a shortage of workers with particular skills in this country and employers cannot fill jobs, workers from overseas are recruited. Another eligibility category is humanitarian. For example, when refugees or asylum seekers successfully apply to migrate to Australia.
Eligibility For nearly a century, citizens of Australia and New Zealand have been allowed to freely enter each others’ countries to live and work. This table shows settler arrivals by eligibility category for 1996–7 and 2004–5. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 1996–72004–5 No.% of totalNo.% of total Family36 50033 200 Skilled19 70053 100 Humanitarian9 90013 200 New Zealand17 50022 400 Other2 2001 300 TOTAL85 800123 400
Eligibility For each of the years shown, calculate the percentage of the total represented by each eligibility category. 1996–972004–05 No.% of totalNo.% of total Family36 50033 200 Skilled19 70053 100 Humanitarian9 90013 200 New Zealand17 50022 400 Other2 2001 300 TOTAL85 800123 400 Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 1996–972004–05 No.% of totalNo.% of total Family36 50042.5 %33 20026.9 % Skilled19 70023.0 %53 10043.1 % Humanitarian9 90011.5 %13 20010.7 % New Zealand17 50020.4 %22 40018.2 % Other2 2002.6 %1 3001.1 % TOTAL85 800100.0 %123 400100.0 %
Eligibility Fill in the gaps. In 2004–5 there were a total of ________ migrants to Australia. Australia’s immigration program has three main eligibility categories. They are ________; __________; and _____________. This was an increase of _______ people from 1996–7. humanitarian family 123 400 skilled 37 600 37 600 humanitarian 123 400 skilled family
Eligibility However, by 2004–5, this group of migrants had declined to _________, comprising _____% of settler arrivals. In 1996–7 the largest eligibility category of migrants to Australia was _________ migrants, who made up _____% of the total. Fill in the gaps. 26.9 family 42.5 33 200 26.9 33 200 42.5 family
Eligibility This group had experienced a percentage increase of _____ from 1996–7. During 2004–5, the largest eligibility category of migrants in Australia was __________ migrants. Humanitarian migrants experienced an increase of ______ between 1996–7 and 2004–5. Fill in the gaps. 3300 20.1 skilled 3300 20.1
Multicultural Australia There are many pull factors that attract migrants to Australia. During the 1980s, the concept of multiculturalism came to the fore in Australian life. Many people believe the presence of different cultural values and practices brings benefits to the country. Immigration continues to be the subject of much discussion in Australia. What pull factors can you think of?
Multicultural Australia What is multiculturalism? Some Australians believe that all migrants to Australia should be encouraged to embrace Australian values and integrate with Australian life. Multiculturalism, they say, has failed. What do you think? What benefits does it bring to this country? In what ways do we see multiculturalism in Australian life?
Movement of people – true or false? According to the UNHCR, stateless and war-affected populations are defined as persons of concern. Answer – True
Movement of people – true or false? Asylum seekers are people driven out of their countries by natural disasters. The continent with the greatest number of refugees is Asia. Answer – False (they are in fear of persecution) Answer – True
Movement of people – true or false? Answer – True Between 1996–7 and 2004–5, Australia experienced a shift from the family migration eligibility category to the skilled migration eligibility category. Answer – False (more migrants from the UK) In 2004–5, New Zealanders comprised the largest proportion of migrants to Australia. Answer – True Better living conditions are a pull factor for migrants.
The Geneva Convention The 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the status of refugees is the key legal document in defining a refugee. It outlines the rights and responsibilities of both the refugees and the states that are parties to the convention.
The Geneva Convention By 2007 there were 194 states that were parties to the Geneva Convention. Answer – Agreement What is another word for convention as it is used in this context? Answer – Yes Is Australia a party to the Geneva Convention?
Multiple choice quiz The movement of people into a country is known as: A. push factors. B. pull factors. C. immigration. D. emigration. Answer – C
Multiple choice In 2004–5 the largest number of migrants to Australia was from: A. China. B. India. C. New Zealand. D. United Kingdom. Answer – D
Multiple choice The category of migrants that made up the largest proportion of Australia’s immigration program in 2004–5 was: A. family. B. skilled. C. humanitarian. D. New Zealand. Answer – B
Multiple choice The eligibility category which experienced the largest percentage change in migrants to Australia between 1996–7 and 2004–5 was: A. skilled. B. humanitarian. C. New Zealand. D. family. Answer – A
Is the Australian community generally accepting of people who weren’t born here? Give reasons for your answer. What are Australian values? Discussion What is the Geneva Convention? How did it come about? Why is it important? Do you believe this country is fair and just in the way it treats migrants? What about refugees and asylum seekers? Is multiculturalism positive for Australia? Is it working, or has it failed?