2Nature of Migration What causes people to migrate? Push factors cause people to leave the places where they live.Low wages, shortages of food, political persecution, etc.Pull factors attract people to new places.High wages, good educational opportunities, havens from political and religious persecution, high standards of living, etc.
3Emigrants/Immigrants People who move from a country are known as emigrantsPeople who move to a country are known as immigrantsMigration can occur within a country, between adjacent countries/regions, and as result of inexpensive air transport, from greater distances.
4Questions About Migration There are four questions to about any migration:Is the migration voluntary or involuntary?Is the migration permanent or temporary?Is the migration legal or illegal?Is the migration international or internal?
5Voluntary/Involuntary Migration Voluntary migration – the movement of people by their own free will from one place to another; for example, early Europeans to Canada, U.S., Australia.Involuntary migration – the movement of people against their own will to a different location; for example, colonization of Africa which resulted in slave trade to the U.S.Why did these early settlers come to Canada? From which countries do you think Canada gets voluntary migrants?
6Involuntary Migration There are two causes of involuntary migration: geopolitical and environmental.Geopolitical – people are forces to move as a result of horrendous circumstances; for example political, economic, and geographical.The invasion of Iraq and civil strife has resulted in a large number of involuntary migrants. Individuals have left the country and become refugees (mostly in Syria & Jordan), and as a result conflict among religious sects, to other parts of the country dominated by their own group.
7Involuntary Migration The other cause of involuntary migration is environmental – migration due to environmental changes; for example droughts, overuse of resources, rising sea levels, etc.As a result of climate change, people live on low-lying islands, coastal plains, or in dry climates may be forced to migrate to other areas.
8Permanent/Temporary Migration In the past migration tended to be permanent, but as a result of inexpensive air travel, temporary migration is more common now, so people can move to one place and then another relatively easily.People who migrate permanently often stay in a country temporarily, and vice versa. For example, people who move to a country for education and then get jobs somewhere else, or people who go to a country as a guest worker but stay there temporarily.
9Legal/Illegal Migration Some of the ways individuals can legally enter Canada are as skilled workers, refugees, investors and entrepreneurs, family reunification, and provincial sponsorship.There are two forms of illegal immigration; sneaking into a country or violating a country’s terms of legal entry; for example entering a country as a tourist or on a student visa, and not going home after the visa expires.
10International/Internal Migration Migration usually refers to movement between countries, but migration often occurs within a county as well – known as internal migrationTwo types of internal migration:Movement from rural to urban areasMovement of people from one region of the country to anotherRural-urban shift has ended in old core; in new and near core people still move to cities. In 2007, more of the world’s people lived in urban areas2. In Canada there is movement between provinces – contributes to population growth in Ontario, B.C., Alberta and decline in Nfld, Sask, Manitoba
11Migration IssuesBrain Drain – skilled workers immigrate to countries with better work and pay, mainly OECD countries, leaving the country of origin with shortage of skilled labour.Importance of remittance – amount of money sent by a migrant to family members living in the migrants homeland.Important to the economies of these countries – alleviates poverty of family, money stimulates local economy and provides investment capital, and remittances are earned in a variety of foreign currencies which are exchanged for local currency, increasing the value of the local currencyShould receiving countries pay for each educated person that immigrates? Or should workers sign contracts for a fixed term and then go home?Philippines has more than 1 million workers in foreign countries – remittance equals 12 billion/yr (2007), equal to 10% of GDP
12Migration Issues Continued Integrating Immigrants in receiving country – not all countries welcome multiculturalism, and those who do find these policies cause fear among citizens (loss of job opportunities, costs associated with healthcare, language instruction, temporary shelter, etc.)Problem of illegal immigration – U.S. is a good example – many Latin Americans try to cross the border from Mexico into the U.S.Citizen’s want to stop illegal immigration and send “illegal aliens” back home”Would create problems in U.S. economy1. Professional degrees not recognized, language, lack of familiarity with how institutions operate, attitudes society towards certain groups as a result of terrorist acts - less accepting
13Migration Issues Continued Smuggling of Illegal Immigrants – organized crime syndicates are involved in human smuggling.Produce counterfeit documents, air tickets, spaced in cargo containers, and use of safe houses – cost between $500 - $50,000 depending on package and destination countryOften charge high interest rates to pay back $, forcing immigrants to work long hours under poor conditionsOften threaten migrants or families if $ is not paid back.
14Migration Issues Continued Need for replacement migration – migration that occurs to make up for aging and declining population – needed to fill shortage of labourThe global refugee crisis – people who leave their homes as a result of civil war, terrorism, authoritarian government controls; religious, racial, or ethnic persecution, environmental problems, and declining socio-economic conditionsRefugees – forced to flee their homes for another countryInternally displaced persons (IDP) – those who are forced to flea their homes but stay within the borders of own country
15UNHCR Solutions for Refugees Voluntary repatriation – safely returning home if conditions in country improve to the effect that refugee feels safe returningLocal integration – integration into the countries of first asylum, the first country refugee flees to (usually borders home country); usually linked to groups with similar linguistic and cultural tiesThird-country resettlement – final solution when repatriation and local integration are not possible; find a third country willing to accept the refugees
16UNHCR Solutions for Refugees Most refugees do not find a solution to their problemsMajority are granted temporary asylum but do not integrate into societiesMillions live in refugee camps, in horrible conditions, little job and educational opportunities