Presentation on theme: "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute March 8, 2013 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green."— Presentation transcript:
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute March 8, 2013 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
Objectives: Students will: Explain what caused America to enter World War I. Describe how Wilsonian idealism turned the war into an ideological crusade for democracy that inspired public fervor and suppressed dissent. Discuss America’s mobilization for war and its reliance primarily on voluntary methods rather than government force. Explain the consequences of World War I for labor, women, and African Americans. Describe America’s participation in the War, and explain why its economic and political importance exceeded its military contribution to the Allied victory and German defeat. AP Focus With U.S.-German relations strained, what is left of the rapport erodes with the disclosure of the Zimmerman telegram in March 1917. In it, the German government promises that if Mexico agrees to an alliance with Germany, it will regain the territory it lost to the U.S. in the Mexican-American War. The following month, President Wilson asks and receives from Congress a declaration of war. Opposition to U.S. entry into the war is strong in the Midwest and Southwest; the Zimmerman telegram, however, infuriates residents of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
CHAPTER THEMES Entering World War I in response to Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson turned America’s participation into a fervent ideological crusade for democracy that successfully stirred the public to a great voluntary war effort, but at some cost to traditional civil liberties. After America’s limited but important contribution to the Allied victory, a triumphant Wilson attempted to construct a peace based on his idealistic Fourteen Points. But European and senatorial opposition, and especially his own political errors, doomed American ratification of the Versailles Treaty and participation in the League of Nations.
Test Monday March 11 Election Charts for 1900-1912 Due NOW!!! ID’s due Monday Decades Chart for 1900s/1910s due Monday/Tuesday After Wed. You lose points
The students will be able to analyze the impact of the Great War on the American public by describing the outcomes for U.S. participation in the Great War
Economic mobilization began voluntarily Government took greater control as war dragged on Food Administration-Herbert Hoover wheatless Wednesdays meatless Tuesday victory gardens Congress restricted foodstuffs for alcohol production Fuel Administration copied Hoover’s ideas 4 liberty bond drives-2/3 of the cost Increased taxes for the rest $112 billion the final cost War Industries Board production quotas, allocated raw materials, set prices on government purchases, railroads, time
A large American force was needed Conscription raised the American force passed six weeks after declaring war 18-45 no subs only people in key industries-shipbuilding 337,000 escaped 4,000 CO’s African-Americans-”construction battalions” Women
Effective American forces arrived in France a year after declaration Small operations in Belgium, Italy, and Russia
Germany pushed hard in spring of 1918 Supreme Commander-French marshal Foch Americans met Germans at Chateau-Thierry 1 st U.S. battle in a European war Second Battle of the Marne-counteroffensive marked beginning of German withdrawal Pershing wanted a separate army Meuse-Argonne offensive-Sept 26-Nov. 11, 1918 1.2 million U.S. troops
Kaiser leaves Germany Armistice-11 th hour of the 11 th day of the 11 th month in the year 1918 9 million soldiers died 20 million suffered grievous wounds 30 million people died from flu epidemic in 1918-1919 Americans only fought 2 battles in last 2 months of war Prospects of endless troops
Wilson lost the 1918 mid-terms Wilson took no Republican to Europe during the peace process
Wilson kept at arms length by European leaders Big 4-Italy, France, U.S., Britain January 18,1919-Conference Opens Red scare moving west League of Nations Syria-France Iraq-Britain Wilson had to fight the Senate on the treaty Treaty of Versailles Henry Cabot Lodge wanted to Americanize the treaty used delay tactics Wilson went public Sept. 25, 1919-Wilson collapsed, then stroke 3 days later