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Communicating Across Cultures. On April 18, 2002, the San Francisco Chronicle ran the following headline on the front page, regarding the explosive new.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicating Across Cultures. On April 18, 2002, the San Francisco Chronicle ran the following headline on the front page, regarding the explosive new."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicating Across Cultures

2 On April 18, 2002, the San Francisco Chronicle ran the following headline on the front page, regarding the explosive new products launched by Abercrombie & Fitch: "ABERCROMBIE & GLITCH Asian Americans rip retailer for stereotypes on T-shirts“ Slogans on these T-shirts included: "Wong Brothers Laundry Service -- Two Wongs Can Make It White." "Abercrombie and Fitch Buddha Bash -- Get Your Buddha on the Floor" Comment from representative of Abercrombie & Fitch "We personally thought Asians would love this T-shirt," said Hampton Carney, with Paul Wilmot Communications in New York, the public relations firm where Abercrombie referred a reporter's call.

3 Objectives communication functionsDefine communication and list its four functions communicationprocessDescribe the communication process small- groupnetworksContrast the three common types of small- group networks grapevineIdentify factors affecting the use of the grapevine

4 Objectives (cont.) barriersDescribe common barriers to effective communication cross-cultural communicationList four rules for improving cross-cultural communication feedbackOutline behaviors associated with providing effective feedback active listeningIdentify the behaviors related to effective active listening

5 Functions of Communication ControlControl - both formal and informal InfluenceInfluence - clarification and feedback Emotional expressionEmotional expression - fulfillment of social needs InformationInformation - facilitating decision making

6 The Communication Process

7 Classification by Direction Downward Lateral Upward

8 Classification by Form Oral Written Non-verbal

9 Non-verbal Communication Body movement Body movement - Body language adds to, and often complicates, verbal communication IntonationsIntonations - Change the meaning of the message Facial expressionFacial expression - Characteristics that would never be communicated if you read a transcript of what is said Physical distancePhysical distance - Proper spacing is largely dependent cultural norms

10 Computer-Aided Communication Electronic mail ( ) Videoconferencing

11 SymbolTranslationSymbolTranslationSymbolTranslation : -) smiley face/happ y 8-)eye-glasses:-|indifference :-e disappoint ment :-Pwry smile:-!foot in mouth :-& tongue tied ;-)wink:-Oyell :-/perplexed:->devilish grin:-Qsmoker :-{mustache:-male:-(frown/sad or surprise C=:-)chefd:-) baseball smiley >-female Communicating Emotion via

12 The Grapevine NotcontrolledNot controlled by management morebelievablePerceived as being more believable and reliable self-interestLargely used to serve self-interest Appear in response to situations –Important –Important to us ambiguity –Where there is ambiguity anxiety –Under conditions that arouse anxiety

13 Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering Selective Perception Information Overload Gender Styles Emotions Language

14 High- vs. Low-Context Cultures Chinese Chinese Korean Korean Vietnamese Vietnamese Arab Arab Greek Greek Spanish Spanish Italian Italian English English North American North American Scandinavian Scandinavian Swiss Swiss German German High Context Low Context Source: Based on the work of E.T. Hall from R.E. Dulck, J.S. Fielden, and J.S. Hill, “International Communication: An Executive Primer,” Business Horizons, January-February 1991, p. 21.

15 A Cultural Guide Assume differences until similarity is provedAssume differences until similarity is proved Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluationEmphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Practice empathyPractice empathy Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesisTreat your interpretation as a working hypothesis

16 Ethics in Cross Cultural Communication What is a lie?What is a lie? What is humor?What is humor?

17 Improving Active Listening Skills eyecontact 1. Make eye contact affirmative expressions 2. Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions Avoidgestures 3. Avoid distracting actions or gestures questions 4. Ask questions 5. Paraphrase interrupting 6. Avoid interrupting the speaker over talk 7. Do not over talk

18 Summary communicationDefined communication communicationprocessDescribed the communication process barriersDescribed common barriers to effective communication cross-cultural communicationListed four rules for improving cross-cultural communication grapevineIdentified factors affecting the use of the grapevine activelisteningIdentified the behaviors related to effective active listening


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