Chapter 10 Communication 10-2 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the communication process, and distinguish between formal and informal communication. 2. Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication and provide examples of each. 3. Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication. 4. Contrast formal communication networks and the grapevine. 5. Identify common barriers to effective communication. 6. Show how to overcome the potential problems in cross-cultural communication.
The Communication Process 10-4
Channels of Communication Path follows the authority chain Messages relate to professional activities Spontaneous channels from individual choice Messages often personal or social 10-5 Formal Informal
Direction of Communication 10-6 Manager Executive Manager Employee Manager Upward Downward Lateral
Interpersonal Communication 10-7 Three Forms: Oral Written Nonverbal
Oral Communication 10-8 Advantages Speed Feedback Simple to Correct Disadvantages Potential for distorted message when passed through a number of people
Written Communication Provide a tangible and verifiable record Record can be stored for an indefinite period of time Physically available for later reference More likely to be well thought-out, logical, and clear Time consuming Lack of feedback May not be read 10-9 AdvantagesDisadvantages
Nonverbal Communication Body language conveys: The extent of affinity for another The relative perceived status between a sender and receiver Meaning changes with: Intonation Facial Expression Physical Distance
Formal Small-Group Networks Chain gives best accuracy Wheel facilitates leadership development All-Channel provides member satisfaction
The Grapevine Emerges when: Situation is important Ambiguity exists Situation causes anxiety Three Characteristics: Not controlled by management Perceived as being more believable and reliable (and often is) Largely used to serve self-interest of those willing to communicate
Electronic Communication Instant and Text Messaging Videoconferencing
Limitations Easy to misinterpret Should not be used for negative messages Overused and overwhelms People are emotionally uninhibited Privacy concerns
IM & TM Essentially real-time Inexpensive Good for short messages Some find it intrusive and distracting May be inappropriate for formal business messages > Deal? > OMG y! > ;) > BRB-BOS > k
Videoconferencing Permits employees to conduct interactive meetings without being physically in the same room Conserves travel funds Becoming more accessible as costs drop
Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering Selective Perception Information Overload Emotions Language Communication Apprehension
Global Implications Cultural Communication Barriers: 1. Semantics – words mean different things to different people 2. Word Connotations – words imply different things in different languages 3. Tone Differences – in some cultures tone changes depending on context 4. Differences in Perception – different world views
A Cultural Guide Assume differences until similarity is proved 2. Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation 3. Practice empathy 4. Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis
Implications for Managers Removing the uncertainty leads to greater satisfaction: Communicate via multiple channels Reduce distortion and incongruities for clarity Use electronic media wisely and carefully Cultural communication barriers can be overcome with understanding
Keep in Mind… Each communication direction has its own challenge that must be overcome Each form of communication has an optimal purpose and specific limitations – use appropriately Communication barriers often retard or distort communication
Summary Described the communication process and distinguished between formal and informal communication. 2. Contrasted downward, upward, and lateral communication and provided examples of each. 3. Contrasted oral, written, and nonverbal communication. 4. Contrasted formal communication networks and the grapevine. 5. Identified common barriers to effective communication. 6. Showed how to overcome the potential problems in cross- cultural communication.
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