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Leadership styles, skills and activities Leadership styles.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership styles, skills and activities Leadership styles."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Leadership styles, skills and activities

3 Leadership styles

4  The various leadership studies and theories discussed earlier have all a direct implication on leadership styles of managers  From the studies it can be concluded it is difficult to attach one single style to a leader  Also styles differ from one culture to another  Over years, various scholars have contributed to leadership styles a

5  Hawthorne studies – have an implication on the supervisors styles  Douglas McGregor theory X and Y represent the authoritarian style of leadership for theory X and humanistic style of leadership for theory Y  Iowa studies analyzed the impact of autocratic, democratic and laissez faire styles  Michigan University group found the employee centred supervisor to be more effective than production centred  Ohio state studies identified consideration 9supportive type of style) and initiating structures (a directive type of style ) as being the major functions of leadership

6  Traits theories have an indirect implication of leadership style  Fiedlers’ contingency theory play an important role in human oriented democratic and task directed style of leadership  Path-goal conceptualization depend heavily on directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented styles of leadership  Same is true for charismatic, and transformational leaders – they have inspirational styles with vision for their people

7  Various leadership styles have also been discussed in the continuum of Tannenbaum and Schmidt where we saw how leaders use authority  On one end of the continuum the there is the boss centred leadership where the leader makes all decisions and announce them and on t far end of the continuum is where we have employee centred leadership and the manager permits subordinates function within defined limits  Blake and Mouton also discussed leadership styles under the managerial grid model – identified five leadership styles

8 Hersey and Blanchard’s approach  This approach is an extension of the managerial grid approach  It identifies tow major styles of leadership Task style – the leader organizes and defines roles for members of the workgroup; the leader explains the task that members are to do and where, where and how they are to do them Relationship styles - the leader has close personal relationship with the members of the group, and there is open communication and psychological and emotional support

9  The situational variable which will determine the style to be used are related to the level of maturity of the followers.  This level of maturity is defined by three criteria 1. Degree of achievement motivation 2. Willingness to take responsibility and 3. Amount of education and/or experience

10 Four basic styles  The key to leadership effectiveness in this model is to match up the situation with the appropriate style. The following summarizes the four basic styles  Telling style. This is a high-task, low –relationship style is effective when followers are at very low level of maturity  Selling style. This is high-task, high relationship styles and is effective when followers are on the low side of maturity  Participating style. This is a low-task high relationship style and is effective when followers are on the high side of maturity  Delegating styles: this is a low-task, low-relationship styles and is effective when followers are at a very high level of maturity

11 LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES/ROLES

12 importance  Companies impact specialised competencies but the “criminally’ neglect the training for key skills like competencies regarding change, relations, creativity and leadership  However, it is exactly these skills that ensure a sustainable power of success of an exceedingly demanding society and a flexible employability of its people

13  A new self confident generation of employees is on the rise, a generation which needs to be effectively guided into the 21 st century  Leadership reaches a new dimension once it ceases to lay down rule, to be restrictive and controlling, but instead start to offer initiatives and support according to the respective situation, to offer scope of action and encourage visions

14  In view of immense variety of leadership concepts, the question today is – which could be the actual role of an executive in order to create something like common values, employee- environment – and customer- related philosophies, a believe in the sense of work or common will to change

15 Leadership roles

16 Mintzberg typical leadership roles  Person –related roles: Representative ( of an organisation or a unit) Leader ( with formal authority and responsibility) Intermediary ( inside and outside)

17  Information role: Monitor ( search and filter information) Distributor of information and/or Speaker

18  Decision- related role: Entrepreneur Person allocating resources Chief negotiator Person solving conflict and/or crisis manager

19 Other leadership roles  Manfred Leadership roles – Charismatic instrumental roles  Staurt, Hart and Quinn: Vision setter Motivator Analyser Task manager

20 21 st century leadership roles – new demands of executives The past – persons get… The future – the right employee must be…. Hired Urged Frustrated Paid fired Professionally select Supported Challenged Further qualified Networked ( linked)

21  Today executive role is to see to it that there is the right drive  The important issue is how to instill genuine enthusiasms for certain goals and/or vision into the employee  Employees to see “ beyond the end of their noses”

22 The change of leadership  “ the best companies are moving away from purely hierarchal organisation structures … they are putting greater emphasis on generational and geographical issue” ( Georg Vielmetter, Director of Hay Group)

23 The change in Leadership The pastThe future Product-related orientation Product/servicesSolution-related orientation Hierarchical mentality behaviorNetworking mentality To “plug hole”Criteria of lostDo “draw potential Competence in ones field abilities+cultural and social competence Customer as ‘bag”relationsTo nurture customer To be “cool”climateTo be honest To know hard factsknowledge+provide adequate information To pay personnelWin-win-situation+to reward+develop

24 Leadership activities

25 Activities of successful and effective leaders  What do managers do?  What do successful leaders/managers do?  What do effective managers/leaders do?

26  Success – those who are promoted rapidly in their organisation  Effective – those with satisfied and committed subordinates and high performing units  Luthans and his colleagues conducted a study on 44 managers from all levels and types of organisations and came up with these activities classified under: What managers do What successful managers do What effective managers do

27 What do managers do?  Planning/coordinating  Staffing  Training/development  Decision making and problem solving  Processing paper work  Exchange routine information  Monitoring /controlling performance  Reinforcing/motivation  Disciplining/punishing  Interacting with outsiders  Managing conflict  socializing/politicking

28 Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans) 1.Traditional management Decision making, planning, and controlling 2.Communications Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork 3.Human resource management Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training 4.Networking Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others 1.Traditional management Decision making, planning, and controlling 2.Communications Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork 3.Human resource management Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training 4.Networking Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others

29 E X H I B I T 1-2 Allocation of Activities by Time

30  These can be conceptually collapsed into for major managerial activities  1. Communication to include:  Exchange of information  Handling paper work  2. Traditional management to include  Planning  Decision making  Controlling

31  3. Human resources management which includes: Motivating/reinforcing Disciplining/punishing Managing conflict Staffing Training and developing

32  4. Networking Interacting with outsiders Socializing/politicking

33 Relative frequency of these activities  Communication – 29% ( about 1/3 of their time)  Traditional management – 32% ( about 1/3 of their time)  Human resources - 20% ( 1/5 of the time)  Networking – 19% ( 1/5 of the time)

34 What do successful managers/leaders do  Success is defined in terms of the speed of promotion within an organisation  A success index in the study was calculated by dividing the managers level in their respective organisation by their tenure( length of service) there  A manager in the 4 th level of management who had been in the organisation for 5 years would be rated more successful than a manager at the 3 rd level of management and had been at that level for 25 years  ( this measure of success may not be perfect but is believe to be objective especially if the sample is large)

35  The study revealed that networking in real managers’ success was very important  Of the four major activities, only networking has a statistical significant relationship with success  Overall it was clear that networking made the biggest relative contribution to managers success and, importantly, human resources management activities made the least relative contribution

36 What does this mean…  Using speed of promotion as a measure of success, it was found that: successful managers spend relatively more time and effort socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders than did their less successful counterparts Successful managers did not give relatively as much time or attention to the traditional management activities of planning, decision making and controlling or to the human resources management activities of motivation/reinforcing, staffing, training/development and managing conflict

37 What does this mean…  Networking seems to be the key to success (defined by rapid promotion)  It should be noted that many managers aspire to success rather than being effective – which may be part of an effect career strategy)

38 What do effective managers/leaders do?  Effective – those with satisfied and committed subordinates and high performing units  The effectiveness index used in this study ( to determine managers/leaders effectiveness) were: 1. Getting the job done through high quantity and quality standards of performance 2. Getting the job done through people, requiring their satisfaction and commitment

39 What methods were used to measure effectiveness 1. A standardized organizational effectiveness questionnaire that measures the units quality and quantity of performance 2. A standardized job satisfaction question 3. A standardized organizational commitment questionnaire

40 Findings  Communication and human resources management activities made by far the largest contribution to the managers effectiveness  The traditional management activities, and especially networking activities made by far the least relative contribution

41 conclusion  If effectiveness is defined as he perceived quantity and quality of the performance of a managers unit and his/her work group members satisfaction and commitment, then the biggest relative contribution to leadership effectiveness comes form human-oriented a activities – communication and human resources management.  This is a stark contrast to the results of a successful manager analysis  Networking activities had by far the strongest relative relationship to success but the weakest in effectiveness

42  On the other hand, HRM activities had a strong relationship to effectiveness ( second to communication) but had the weakest relative relationship to success  Therefore successful managers do not seem to perform the same activities as effective managers

43 Implications  More attention may need to be given to formal rewards systems ( e.g. promotion) o that effective managers may also be promoted  Organisations need to tie formal rewards ( especially promotion to performance in order to mote ahead and meet the challenges that lie ahead. This achieved by having performance- based appraisal systems  Support and reward effective performance, not just successful socializing and politicking  Human oriented leadership skills may be of considerable value in meeting the challenges of global competition, of information technology and knowledge management

44 LEADERSHIP SKILLS

45 Leadership skills  Means how leaders behave and perform effectively  A lot was said about leadership skills and the traits theories

46  Skill identified earlier Conceptual skills Analytical skills Creative Diplomatic and friendly Effective speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organised administrative ability Persuasive

47  Other skills by other scholars

48 Collins 5 levels of Executive capabilities!  Going from Good to Great!  Being merely “Good” is not good enough!  Because being “Good” stops you from becoming “Great”.  So, how does an organization get to be “Great” (achieving sustained great results”??

49 Collin’s 5-Level Executive Capabilities  Why do some organizations consistently outperform their competitors and sustain their operations through tough times?

50 Collin’s 5-Level Executive Capabilities Level 1 – Highly capable individual Level 2 – Contributing team member Level 3 – Competent manager Level 4 – Effective leader Level 5 – Executive capability Jim Collins, “Good to Great”

51  Why do some organizations consistently outperform their competitors and sustain their operations through tough times? Collin’s 5-Level Executive Capabilities

52 LEVEL 5 HIERARCHY5Executive Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will 4 Effective Leader Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards 3 Competent Manager Organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of pre- determined objectives 2 Contributing Team Member Contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting. 1 Highly Capable Individual Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills and good work habits. 4/30/201551

53  Embody a paradox of personal humility and professional will  They are ambitious to be sure, but ambition first and foremost for the organisation and not for themselves  Set up successors for even greater success in the next generation whereas egocentric level 4 leaders often set up their successors for failure 4/30/ Key points of Level 5 leaders

54  Display compelling modesty, are self effacing and understanding. In contrast, leaders with huge personal egos often contributed for the demise or continued mediocrity of the organisation  Are fanatically driven, infected with the incurable need to produce sustained results. They are resolved to do whatever it takes to make the organization great, no matter how bit or hard the decision. 4/30/201553

55  Display a workmanlike diligence – more plow horse than show horse  Look out of the window to attribute success to factors other than themselves. When things go poorly, however, they look at the mirror and blame themselves, taking full responsibilities  Level 5 leaders exist all around us, if we just know that to look for, and that may have the potential to evolved into level 5 4/30/201554

56 Level 5 leadership competencies Focused drive  Identify and focus on the goal or vision and expend high degree of energy Emotional intelligence  Understanding and mastering your emotion ( and those of others) in a way that instills confidence Trusted influence  Evoking trust from others and placing trust in others – balancing commitment and empowerment

57 Level 5 leadership competencies Conceptual thinking  Conceiving and selecting innovative strategies and ideas while seeing the big picture – the forces, events, entities, and people involved in a salutation at hand Systems thinking  Connecting processes, events, and structures – a balance of process orientation and mental discipline

58 Leadership competences - Scheible & Schust  Leading and acting competencies - Knowing and being able to know ( knowledge, abilities and talents) Wanting to(personal motivation and attitude regarding performance) Being allowed to ( personal life and work situations, freedom) instead of must  Specialized competences – multiple + specialized qualification  Process competences – to understand processes + think integrally  Method competences –to master relevant methods  Social/cultural competences – to deal adequately with people

59 Other skills by other scholars  Whetten and Cameron (1991) on the basis of an interview of more than 400 highly effective manages, the 10 skills most often identified were the following: 1. Vertical communication ( including listening) 2. Managing time and stress 3. Managing individual decisions 4. Recognizing, defining and solving problems

60  5. Motivating and influencing others  6. Delegating  7. Setting goals and articulating a vision  8.Selef awareness  9.Team building  10. Managing conflict  Follow up studies and related research have sound skills similar to the 10 listed

61  Through statistical techniques, the results of various research studies were combined into the following four categories of effective leadership skills: 1. Participative and human relations ( e.g. supportive communication and team building) 2. Competitiveness and control (e.g. assertiveness, power and influence) 3. Innovativeness and entrepreneurship (e.g. creative problem solving) 4. Maintaining order and rationality (e.g. managing time and rational decision making)

62  Looking at various leadership skills by various scholars, Whetton and Cameron noted the following three characteristics of leadership skills  1. The skills are behavioral; They are not traits, or styles. They consist of an identifiable set of actions that leaders perform and that result in certain outcomes

63  2. The skills in several cases seem contradictory or paradoxical; for example they are: Neither all soft nor hard driving, Oriented neither towards teamwork and interpersonal relationship exclusively Oriented neither towards individualism and entrepreneurship exclusively  3. The skills are interrelated and overlapping: Effective leaders do not perform one skills or one set of skills independently of others. In other words effective leaders are multiskilled

64 A model for personal skills –Whetten and Cameron 1. Developing personal awareness Determining values and priorities Identifying cognitive styles Assessing attitudes towards change 2. Managing stress Coping with stressors managing time Delegating 3. Solving problems creatively Using a rational approach Using the creative approach Fostering innovativeness in others  These three will often overlap with one another

65 A model for interpersonal skills – whetten and Cameron  4. Communicating supportively Coaching Counseling Listening  5. Gaining power and influence Gaining power Exercising influence Empowering others

66  6. motivating others Diagnosing poor performance Creating a motivating environment Rewarding accomplishment  7. managing conflict Identifying causes Selecting appropriate strategies Resolving confrontations  These also will often overlap with one another

67  This model can thus be used to summarize what skills are found to be important in effective leadership  It can also serve as a guideline for needed skill and career development in future  Career development has been referred to here because its important to find the right fit among individuals, the position and the company needs

68 Leadership skills and career development programmes  Leadership can be taught and learned  Most top business schools offer leadership causes and other have gone ahead and established executive leadership programmes  Besides the business school education programmes, there are a number of in-house development programmes  Other programmes target specific competences which when developed over time lead to leadership effectiveness e.g. Influencing others, team building, assertiveness, decision making etc

69  Another recently emerging method of developing leaders is coaching and mentoring  Other indirect techniques other than leadership skills development programmes involve job redesign (to increase responsibility, variety, autonomy, and challenge ), and behaviour change management ( through reinforcement systems)

70  In conclusion, one thing is certain; leadership skills can make a difference both positively and negatively


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