Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Leadership styles, skills and activities

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Leadership styles, skills and activities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership styles, skills and activities

2 Leadership styles

3 Leadership styles The various leadership studies and theories discussed earlier have all a direct implication on leadership styles of managers From the studies it can be concluded it is difficult to attach one single style to a leader Also styles differ from one culture to another Over years, various scholars have contributed to leadership styles a

4 Hawthorne studies – have an implication on the supervisors styles
Douglas McGregor theory X and Y represent the authoritarian style of leadership for theory X and humanistic style of leadership for theory Y Iowa studies analyzed the impact of autocratic, democratic and laissez faire styles Michigan University group found the employee centred supervisor to be more effective than production centred Ohio state studies identified consideration 9supportive type of style) and initiating structures (a directive type of style ) as being the major functions of leadership

5 Traits theories have an indirect implication of leadership style
Fiedlers’ contingency theory play an important role in human oriented democratic and task directed style of leadership Path-goal conceptualization depend heavily on directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented styles of leadership Same is true for charismatic, and transformational leaders – they have inspirational styles with vision for their people

6 Various leadership styles have also been discussed in the continuum of Tannenbaum and Schmidt where we saw how leaders use authority On one end of the continuum the there is the boss centred leadership where the leader makes all decisions and announce them and on t far end of the continuum is where we have employee centred leadership and the manager permits subordinates function within defined limits Blake and Mouton also discussed leadership styles under the managerial grid model – identified five leadership styles

7 Hersey and Blanchard’s approach
This approach is an extension of the managerial grid approach It identifies tow major styles of leadership Task style – the leader organizes and defines roles for members of the workgroup; the leader explains the task that members are to do and where, where and how they are to do them Relationship styles - the leader has close personal relationship with the members of the group, and there is open communication and psychological and emotional support

8 The situational variable which will determine the style to be used are related to the level of maturity of the followers. This level of maturity is defined by three criteria Degree of achievement motivation Willingness to take responsibility and Amount of education and/or experience

9 Four basic styles The key to leadership effectiveness in this model is to match up the situation with the appropriate style. The following summarizes the four basic styles Telling style . This is a high-task, low –relationship style is effective when followers are at very low level of maturity Selling style. This is high-task, high relationship styles and is effective when followers are on the low side of maturity Participating style. This is a low-task high relationship style and is effective when followers are on the high side of maturity Delegating styles: this is a low-task, low-relationship styles and is effective when followers are at a very high level of maturity


11 importance Companies impact specialised competencies but the “criminally’ neglect the training for key skills like competencies regarding change, relations, creativity and leadership However, it is exactly these skills that ensure a sustainable power of success of an exceedingly demanding society and a flexible employability of its people

12 A new self confident generation of employees is on the rise, a generation which needs to be effectively guided into the 21st century Leadership reaches a new dimension once it ceases to lay down rule, to be restrictive and controlling, but instead start to offer initiatives and support according to the respective situation , to offer scope of action and encourage visions

13 In view of immense variety of leadership concepts, the question today is – which could be the actual role of an executive in order to create something like common values, employee- environment – and customer- related philosophies, a believe in the sense of work or common will to change

14 Leadership roles

15 Mintzberg typical leadership roles
Person –related roles: Representative ( of an organisation or a unit) Leader ( with formal authority and responsibility) Intermediary ( inside and outside)

16 Information role: Monitor ( search and filter information)
Distributor of information and/or Speaker

17 Decision- related role:
Entrepreneur Person allocating resources Chief negotiator Person solving conflict and/or crisis manager

18 Other leadership roles
Manfred Leadership roles – Charismatic instrumental roles Staurt, Hart and Quinn: Vision setter Motivator Analyser Task manager

19 21st century leadership roles – new demands of executives
The past – persons get… The future – the right employee must be…. Hired Urged Frustrated Paid fired Professionally select Supported Challenged Further qualified Networked ( linked)

20 Today executive role is to see to it that there is the right drive
The important issue is how to instill genuine enthusiasms for certain goals and/or vision into the employee Employees to see “ beyond the end of their noses”

21 The change of leadership
“ the best companies are moving away from purely hierarchal organisation structures … they are putting greater emphasis on generational and geographical issue” ( Georg Vielmetter, Director of Hay Group)

22 The change in Leadership
The past The future Product-related orientation Product/services Solution-related orientation Hierarchical mentality behavior Networking mentality To “plug hole” Criteria of lost Do “draw potential Competence in ones field abilities +cultural and social competence Customer as ‘bag” relations To nurture customer To be “cool” climate To be honest To know hard facts knowledge +provide adequate information To pay personnel Win-win-situation +to reward+develop

23 Leadership activities

24 Activities of successful and effective leaders
What do managers do? What do successful leaders/managers do? What do effective managers/leaders do?

25 Success – those who are promoted rapidly in their organisation
Effective – those with satisfied and committed subordinates and high performing units Luthans and his colleagues conducted a study on 44 managers from all levels and types of organisations and came up with these activities classified under: What managers do What successful managers do What effective managers do

26 What do managers do? Planning/coordinating Staffing
Training/development Decision making and problem solving Processing paper work Exchange routine information Monitoring /controlling performance Reinforcing/motivation Disciplining/punishing Interacting with outsiders Managing conflict socializing/politicking

27 Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans)
Traditional management Decision making, planning, and controlling Communications Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork Human resource management Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training Networking Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others

28 Allocation of Activities by Time
1-2 E X H I B I T

29 1. Communication to include:
These can be conceptually collapsed into for major managerial activities 1. Communication to include: Exchange of information Handling paper work 2. Traditional management to include Planning Decision making Controlling

30 3. Human resources management which includes:
Motivating/reinforcing Disciplining/punishing Managing conflict Staffing Training and developing

31 4. Networking Interacting with outsiders Socializing/politicking

32 Relative frequency of these activities
Communication – 29% ( about 1/3 of their time) Traditional management – 32% ( about 1/3 of their time) Human resources - 20% ( 1/5 of the time) Networking – 19% ( 1/5 of the time)

33 What do successful managers/leaders do
Success is defined in terms of the speed of promotion within an organisation A success index in the study was calculated by dividing the managers level in their respective organisation by their tenure( length of service) there A manager in the 4th level of management who had been in the organisation for 5 years would be rated more successful than a manager at the 3rd level of management and had been at that level for 25 years ( this measure of success may not be perfect but is believe to be objective especially if the sample is large)

34 The study revealed that networking in real managers’ success was very important
Of the four major activities, only networking has a statistical significant relationship with success Overall it was clear that networking made the biggest relative contribution to managers success and , importantly, human resources management activities made the least relative contribution

35 What does this mean… Using speed of promotion as a measure of success, it was found that: successful managers spend relatively more time and effort socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders than did their less successful counterparts Successful managers did not give relatively as much time or attention to the traditional management activities of planning, decision making and controlling or to the human resources management activities of motivation/reinforcing, staffing, training/development and managing conflict

36 What does this mean… Networking seems to be the key to success (defined by rapid promotion) It should be noted that many managers aspire to success rather than being effective – which may be part of an effect career strategy)

37 What do effective managers/leaders do?
Effective – those with satisfied and committed subordinates and high performing units The effectiveness index used in this study ( to determine managers/leaders effectiveness) were: Getting the job done through high quantity and quality standards of performance Getting the job done through people, requiring their satisfaction and commitment

38 What methods were used to measure effectiveness
A standardized organizational effectiveness questionnaire that measures the units quality and quantity of performance A standardized job satisfaction question A standardized organizational commitment questionnaire

39 Findings Communication and human resources management activities made by far the largest contribution to the managers effectiveness The traditional management activities, and especially networking activities made by far the least relative contribution

40 conclusion If effectiveness is defined as he perceived quantity and quality of the performance of a managers unit and his/her work group members satisfaction and commitment, then the biggest relative contribution to leadership effectiveness comes form human-oriented a activities – communication and human resources management. This is a stark contrast to the results of a successful manager analysis Networking activities had by far the strongest relative relationship to success but the weakest in effectiveness

41 On the other hand, HRM activities had a strong relationship to effectiveness ( second to communication) but had the weakest relative relationship to success Therefore successful managers do not seem to perform the same activities as effective managers

42 Implications More attention may need to be given to formal rewards systems ( e.g. promotion) o that effective managers may also be promoted Organisations need to tie formal rewards ( especially promotion to performance in order to mote ahead and meet the challenges that lie ahead. This achieved by having performance-based appraisal systems Support and reward effective performance, not just successful socializing and politicking Human oriented leadership skills may be of considerable value in meeting the challenges of global competition, of information technology and knowledge management


44 Leadership skills Means how leaders behave and perform effectively
A lot was said about leadership skills and the traits theories

45 Skill identified earlier
Conceptual skills Analytical skills Creative Diplomatic and friendly Effective speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organised administrative ability Persuasive

46 Other skills by other scholars

47 Collins 5 levels of Executive capabilities!
Going from Good to Great! Being merely “Good” is not good enough! Because being “Good” stops you from becoming “Great”. So, how does an organization get to be “Great” (achieving sustained great results”??

48 Collin’s 5-Level Executive Capabilities
Why do some organizations consistently outperform their competitors and sustain their operations through tough times?

49 Collin’s 5-Level Executive Capabilities
Level 1 – Highly capable individual Level 2 – Contributing team member Level 3 – Competent manager Level 4 – Effective leader Level 5 – Executive capability Jim Collins, “Good to Great”

50 Collin’s 5-Level Executive Capabilities
Why do some organizations consistently outperform their competitors and sustain their operations through tough times?

51 LEVEL 5 HIERARCHY 5 Executive
Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will 4 Effective Leader Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards 3 Competent Manager Organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of pre-determined objectives 2 Contributing Team Member Contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting. 1 Highly Capable Individual Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills and good work habits. 4/13/2017

52 Key points of Level 5 leaders
Embody a paradox of personal humility and professional will They are ambitious to be sure, but ambition first and foremost for the organisation and not for themselves Set up successors for even greater success in the next generation whereas egocentric level 4 leaders often set up their successors for failure 4/13/2017

53 Display compelling modesty, are self effacing and understanding
Display compelling modesty, are self effacing and understanding. In contrast, leaders with huge personal egos often contributed for the demise or continued mediocrity of the organisation Are fanatically driven, infected with the incurable need to produce sustained results. They are resolved to do whatever it takes to make the organization great, no matter how bit or hard the decision. 4/13/2017

54 Display a workmanlike diligence – more plow horse than show horse
Look out of the window to attribute success to factors other than themselves. When things go poorly, however, they look at the mirror and blame themselves, taking full responsibilities Level 5 leaders exist all around us, if we just know that to look for, and that may have the potential to evolved into level 5 4/13/2017

55 Level 5 leadership competencies
Focused drive Identify and focus on the goal or vision and expend high degree of energy Emotional intelligence Understanding and mastering your emotion ( and those of others) in a way that instills confidence Trusted influence Evoking trust from others and placing trust in others – balancing commitment and empowerment

56 Level 5 leadership competencies
Conceptual thinking Conceiving and selecting innovative strategies and ideas while seeing the big picture – the forces, events, entities, and people involved in a salutation at hand Systems thinking Connecting processes, events, and structures – a balance of process orientation and mental discipline

57 Leadership competences - Scheible & Schust
Leading and acting competencies - Knowing and being able to know ( knowledge, abilities and talents) Wanting to(personal motivation and attitude regarding performance) Being allowed to ( personal life and work situations, freedom) instead of must Specialized competences – multiple + specialized qualification Process competences – to understand processes + think integrally Method competences –to master relevant methods Social/cultural competences – to deal adequately with people

58 Other skills by other scholars
Whetten and Cameron (1991) on the basis of an interview of more than 400 highly effective manages, the 10 skills most often identified were the following: Vertical communication ( including listening) Managing time and stress Managing individual decisions Recognizing, defining and solving problems

59 5. Motivating and influencing others
6. Delegating 7. Setting goals and articulating a vision 8.Selef awareness 9.Team building 10. Managing conflict Follow up studies and related research have sound skills similar to the 10 listed

60 Through statistical techniques, the results of various research studies were combined into the following four categories of effective leadership skills: Participative and human relations ( e.g. supportive communication and team building) Competitiveness and control (e.g. assertiveness, power and influence) Innovativeness and entrepreneurship (e.g. creative problem solving) Maintaining order and rationality (e.g. managing time and rational decision making)

61 Looking at various leadership skills by various scholars, Whetton and Cameron noted the following three characteristics of leadership skills 1. The skills are behavioral; They are not traits, or styles. They consist of an identifiable set of actions that leaders perform and that result in certain outcomes

62 2. The skills in several cases seem contradictory or paradoxical; for example they are:
Neither all soft nor hard driving, Oriented neither towards teamwork and interpersonal relationship exclusively Oriented neither towards individualism and entrepreneurship exclusively 3. The skills are interrelated and overlapping: Effective leaders do not perform one skills or one set of skills independently of others. In other words effective leaders are multiskilled

63 A model for personal skills –Whetten and Cameron
Developing personal awareness Determining values and priorities Identifying cognitive styles Assessing attitudes towards change Managing stress Coping with stressors managing time Delegating Solving problems creatively Using a rational approach Using the creative approach Fostering innovativeness in others These three will often overlap with one another

64 A model for interpersonal skills – whetten and Cameron
4. Communicating supportively Coaching Counseling Listening 5. Gaining power and influence Gaining power Exercising influence Empowering others

65 These also will often overlap with one another
6. motivating others Diagnosing poor performance Creating a motivating environment Rewarding accomplishment 7. managing conflict Identifying causes Selecting appropriate strategies Resolving confrontations These also will often overlap with one another

66 This model can thus be used to summarize what skills are found to be important in effective leadership It can also serve as a guideline for needed skill and career development in future Career development has been referred to here because its important to find the right fit among individuals, the position and the company needs

67 Leadership skills and career development programmes
Leadership can be taught and learned Most top business schools offer leadership causes and other have gone ahead and established executive leadership programmes Besides the business school education programmes, there are a number of in-house development programmes Other programmes target specific competences which when developed over time lead to leadership effectiveness e.g. Influencing others, team building, assertiveness, decision making etc

68 Another recently emerging method of developing leaders is coaching and mentoring
Other indirect techniques other than leadership skills development programmes involve job redesign (to increase responsibility, variety, autonomy, and challenge ), and behaviour change management ( through reinforcement systems)

69 In conclusion, one thing is certain; leadership skills can make a difference both positively and negatively

Download ppt "Leadership styles, skills and activities"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google