Presentation on theme: "What is Organizational Behavior?"— Presentation transcript:
1What is Organizational Behavior? The Organization as a Social SystemRoles of the Manager
2Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
3Getzels – Guba Model Institution Role Expectation Group Climate IntentionsIndividualPersonalityNeedDispositionObservedBehaviorIdeographic (Individual) DimensionNomothethic (Organizational) DimensionOrganizationAs ASocial System
4What Managers Do They get things done through other people. Management Activities:Make decisionsAllocate resourcesDirect activities of others to attain goalsWork in an organizationA consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
6Management Functions: Plan ControlLeadOrganizePlanA process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.As managers advance, they do this function more often.
7Management Functions: Organize ControlLeadOrganizePlanDetermining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
8Management Functions: Lead ControlLeadOrganizePlanA function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.It is about PEOPLE!
9Management Functions: Control LeadOrganizeMonitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation.
13Katz’s Essential Management Skills Technical SkillsThe ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertiseHuman SkillsThe ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groupsConceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
14Luthans’ Study of Managerial Activities Is there a difference in frequency of managerial activity between effective and successful managers?Four types of managerial activity:Traditional ManagementDecision-making, planning, and controlling.CommunicationExchanging routine information and processing paperworkHuman Resource ManagementMotivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training.NetworkingSocializing, politicking, and interacting with others.
15Managers Should Use All Three Approaches The trick is to know when to go with your gut.– Jack WelshIntuition is often based on inaccurate informationFaddism is prevalent in managementSystematic study can be time-consumingUse evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience. That is the promise of OB.
16Contributing Disciplines PsychologySociologySocial PsychologyAnthropologyMany behavioral scienceshave contributed to thedevelopment ofOrganizationalBehavior
17PsychologyThe science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.Unit of Analysis:IndividualContributions to OB:Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perceptionTraining, leadership effectiveness, job satisfactionIndividual decision making, performance appraisal attitude measurementEmployee selection, work design, and work stress
18Social PsychologyAn area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.Unit of Analysis:GroupContributions to OB:Behavioral changeAttitude changeCommunicationGroup processesGroup decision making
19The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings. SociologyThe study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.Unit of Analysis:-- Organizational System-- GroupContributions to OB:Group dynamicsWork teamsCommunicationPowerConflictIntergroup behaviorFormal organization theoryOrganizational technologyOrganizational changeOrganizational culture
20AnthropologyThe study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.Unit of Analysis:-- Organizational System-- GroupContributions to OB:Organizational cultureOrganizational environmentComparative valuesComparative attitudesCross-cultural analysis
21Types of Study Variables Independent (X)Dependent (Y)The presumed cause of the change in the dependent variable (Y).This is the variable that OB researchers manipulate to observe the changes in Y.This is the response to X (the independent variable).It is what the OB researchers want to predict or explain.The interesting variable!XYPredictive Ability
22Interesting OB Dependent Variables ProductivityTransforming inputs to outputs at lowest cost. Includes the concepts of effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (meeting goals at a low cost).AbsenteeismFailure to report to work – a huge cost to employers.TurnoverVoluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.Deviant Workplace BehaviorVoluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members.
23More Interesting OB Dependent Variables Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.Job SatisfactionA general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
24The Independent Variables The independent variable (X) can be at any of these three levels in this model:IndividualBiographical characteristics, personality and emotions, values and attitudes, ability, perception, motivation, individual learning and individual decision making.GroupCommunication, group decision making, leadership and trust, group structure, conflict, power and politics, and work teams.Organization SystemOrganizational culture, human resource policies and practices, and organizational structure and design.
25OB Model Dependent Variables (Y) Three Levels Independent Variables (X)