Presentation on theme: "JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY Chapter 9. JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY Key Topics: The development of America’s economy in a world of warring great powers. The."— Presentation transcript:
JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY Key Topics: The development of America’s economy in a world of warring great powers. The role of Jefferson’s presidency and his agrarian republicanism in forging a national identity. The ending of colonial dependency by the divisive War of 1812. The nationalizing force of westward expansion.
EUROPEAN COLONIES IN THE EARLY 19 TH CENTURY Spain: challenged in its efforts to control New Spain & the Caribbean. Britain: The gov’t of Canada reflected lessons learned in the colonies. Russia: Rapidly expanding presence centered on Alaska and the Northwest.
A NATIONAL ECONOMY What were the most important strengths of the American economy in the early 1800s?
THE NATIONAL ECONOMY 1800s Predominantly rural 94%of Americans lived in communities of fewer than 2,500 people Crops were grown for home rather than for sale A developing country of raw materials
THE NATIONAL ECONOMY Cotton was the US’s biggest export and dominated the South and US trade. The invention of the cotton by Eli Whitney only increased the desire to sell more cotton and buy more slaves. The Industrial Revolution in England increased the demand for cotton. Trade with Britain and France had declined since the Revolution & America was intentionally kept out of the West Indian trade market. It was difficult for the US to become an independent trade partner in a world already dominated by world powers.
THE NATIONAL ECONOMY Despite economic problems in the 1790s, the American shipping industry boomed. It stimulated growth in coastal cities due to expanding work opportunities. As a result, it increased food production on farms. Expanding Foreign Trade- The US began trading with China,. The US began to build bigger and faster ships to move more goods to China. The Clipper was the best ship during the era.
THE NATIONAL ECONOMY New ships like the Clipper Ship cut the sailing time in half. With the increase in the shipping business, there was also an increase in immigration.
The National Economy Growth of Trade- French Revolution led to renewed period of sea warfare between the British and French. Also, US merchants supplied both sides. US shipbuilding and growth of cities increased.
THE JEFFERSON PRESIDENCY America’s 3 rd President. Served 1801-1809 Presidency marked a peaceful transition from the Federalists to the Jeffersonian Republicans. Term lacked political bitterness and rivalries that marked plagued the 1 st two presidencies. Jefferson demonstrated that a strongly led party system could shape national policy without leading to dictatorship or revolt. Began the Virginia Dynasty (James Madison 1809-1817), (James Monroe 1817- 1825)
THE JEFFERSON PRESIDENCY Republican Agrarianism- Jefferson’s idea of a nation included: Small farms in rural communities Independent farmers would promote the common good Expansion into the West Jefferson was greatly influenced by Thomas Malthus, who warned against population growth and poverty. Jefferson didn’t view this as a problem due to the ability to expand our borders. He wanted to create a “Republic of Virtue.”
JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY- GOVERNMENT Cut all taxes Reduced the size of the army & navy Cut government staff Tried to eliminate the national debt
JEFFERSON’S JUDICIARY-MARBURY V. MADISON In one of his last actions, Adams appointed Federalists, known as the “Midnight Judges”, to the positions of judges and other positions in the judiciary. Jefferson refused to recognize Adam’s judges and instructed James Madison, his Secretary of State, not to deliver their commissions. William Marbury, Adam’s choice for Justice of the Peace for D.C. led the filed suit against Madison. The case Marbury v. Madison became a landmark case for the Supreme Court and established the power of judicial review.
JEFFERSON’S JUDICIARY James Madison William Marbury
JEFFERSON’S JUDICIARY- MARBURY V. MADISON The question, “ Was the judiciary independent of politics?” was the main issue. In 1803, Chief Justice delivered the decision: The courts had the responsibility “to say what the law is” BUT also the S.C wasn’t empowered by the Constitution to force the executive branch to give Marbury his commission. The ruling established the idea that ONLY the federal judiciary could determine what was constitutional. The decision made the court a nationalizing force.
The Louisiana Purchase In 1803, Jefferson’s representatives bought the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million. Napoleon needed the money to finance his European wars.
The Jefferson Presidency The acquisition doubled the size of the US and it was the largest peaceful acquisition of territory in US History.
Louisiana Purchase 1804-06- The Lewis and Clark Expedition was the first to survey & document nature and the rich environment of the territory. The expedition began in St. Louis & ended at the Pacific Ocean in Oregon.
RENEWED IMPERIAL RIVALRY IN NORTH AMERICA What contradictions in American Indian policy did the confrontations between Tecumseh’s alliance and soldiers in the Old Northwest reveal? Can you suggest any solutions to these contradictions?
RENEWED RIVALRIES IN NORTH AMERICA Jefferson insisted the US have neutral rights to trade goods in Europe. US ships got caught in the middle of British & French warfare in the open seas & British soldiers began to desert their posts and join American crews. Britain began impressing Americans. Americans protested British interference and the kidnapping and deaths of American soldiers. As a result, Jefferson imposed the Embargo Act.
THE EMBARGO ACT 1807- Forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports. Intended to force Britain & France to recognize neutral rights. The act was an economic disaster for the US. Exports fell from $108 million in 1807 to $22 million in 1808. Smuggling and illegal trading increased. New England merchants were hit the hardest. The policy of “peaceable coercion” was a failure. It had little effect on Br. & Fr.
NATIVE AMERICAN RELATIONS Jefferson’s policy toward Native Americans included acculturation, removal or extinction. Jefferson could not stop westward expansion. In response, natives formed the Pan- Indian Military Resistance Movement, which called for political and cultural Unification of the tribes in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Native Resistance was a major cause of the War of 1812.
WAR OF 1812 What were the causes and effects of the War of 1812?
WAR OF 1812 CAUSES Chesapeake-Leopard Affair Orders of Council Embargo Act 1807 Non-Intercourse Act 1809 Tecumseh’s War War Hawks Monroe- Pinckney Treaty
WAR OF 1812 Battle of New Orleans-A decisive American victory over the British in 1815 that ended any British hopes of gaining control over the Mississippi River. Andrew Jackson led the American troops.
WAR OF 1812 Hartford ConventionTreaty of Ghent New England states threatened to secede from the Union due to the economic devastation caused by the Embargo Act. At the Hartford Convention, the threat was ignored as Britain announced peace. The British agreed to leave the Western forts but nothing was settled on impressment or neutral rights. The British abandonment of native tribes sealed their fate of extinction, acculturation, & evacuation.
WAR OF 1812 Treaty of Ghent- The biggest impact of the war was on national morale. It forced the British to stop treating America as a colony and convinced Americans they were independent & strong.
THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS1817-25 After the end of the War of 1812, Americans focused on expansion and national development. In 1816, the last of the Virginia Dynasty, James Monroe was elected President. It is called the Era of Good Feelings because the Federalist Party disappeared which enabled the Republicans to govern in a peaceful and nonpartisan way.
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS The American System- A program of economic development promoted by House Speaker Henry Clay. Included: Second Bank of the United States