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Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the DOI Secretary of State.

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Presentation on theme: "Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the DOI Secretary of State."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the DOI Secretary of State under President Washington Vice President under Adams Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the DOI Secretary of State under President Washington Vice President under Adams

3 Anti-British/Pro-French Almost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans. Against slavery Owned 200 slaves Strict Construction of Constitution Used loose construction of Constitution to justify his purchase of the Louisiana territory Jefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in the “real world”.

4 By 1800, the Federalist party was split, clearing the way to the presidency for the Democratic-Republicans. Two men ran for the party nomination: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

5 ELECTION OF 1800 Jefferson & Burr received an equal number of votes in the Electoral College This meant that the Federalist- dominated House of Representatives was required to choose a president

6 Ironically, Alexander Hamilton campaigned for Jefferson Hamilton disagreed on most issues Jefferson stood on Hamilton personally disliked Jefferson and believed Burr to be “a most unfit and dangerous man.” It took 35 ballots, but Jefferson finally won.

7 Significance of Election of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution) Revolutionary“Revolutionary” achievement Jefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change- over as “the bloodless revolution” Significance of Election of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution) Revolutionary“Revolutionary” achievement Jefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change- over as “the bloodless revolution” John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/Republican

8 Election of 1800: Election of 1800: For the second time, a president was saddled with a vice-president he did not want 2. To eliminate future problems  12 th Amendment:  12 th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so their would never be a tie. electoral college FederalistsDemocratic Republicans FederalistsDemocratic Republicans Adams--Pres---65Jefferson---Pres.---73 Burr---VP----73

9 Jefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dress Set precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himself Jefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural address Jefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives Jefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dress Set precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himself Jefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural address Jefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives A New President

10 New type of democracy common man Champion for the common man Believed education would prepare them for participation in government Believed education the key to social mobility Educated should rule

11 Continued to uphold the treaties signed by Adams& Washington Followed policy of neutrality Did not attack tariffs, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debt Continued to uphold the treaties signed by Adams& Washington Followed policy of neutrality Did not attack tariffs, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debt He kept most Federalist programs. WHY? Felt Federalist diplomats signed good treaties with England, Spain, France, and kept US out of war. The Bank of the United States was helping to get the country out of debt Federalists preserved democratic gains, while fending off anarchy Wanted to help 2-party system by showing that defeat (for Federalists) didn’t mean disaster

12 Jefferson axed a few Federalist policies Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition Act Reduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition Act Reduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years

13 Jefferson and his treasurer Albert Gallatin set out to reduce the national debt Under Hamilton, the government had borrowed money to finance national growth –He thought debt was a good thing: If the government borrowed from its rich citizens, those citizens would have a vested interest in the country’s growth Jefferson decided to abandon this policy, trimmed the federal budget, and cut taxes, all of which he succeeded in doing.

14 Jefferson’s Presidency is considered a transitional period in US History. Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy. TJ believed the National Government became too powerful during Adam’s Presidency Would try to reduce National Govt. power but actually expands Presidential power. Jeffersonian democracy KING GEORGE FEDERALISTS JEFFERSON

15 Jeffersonian democracy Visualized an agrarian societyVisualized an agrarian society Feared industrialization and its effectsFeared industrialization and its effects Farmers were the chosen class.Farmers were the chosen class. Laissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s livesLaissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s lives Felt slavery would eventually end but predicted it would divide countryFelt slavery would eventually end but predicted it would divide country Ultimate goal: African Americans would assimilate into American societyUltimate goal: African Americans would assimilate into American society Co-existence with Native Americans was a long range goal but felt they would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficientCo-existence with Native Americans was a long range goal but felt they would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficient For the time being, felt Native Americans & whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western landsFor the time being, felt Native Americans & whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western lands

16 Great Britain’s claims in 1783 United States in 1783 Spanish land after 1783 Spanish Land 1800 New Orleans

17 Great Britain’s land after 1783 United States in 1783 Spanish land New Orleans is a highly desirable port. WHY? French Land in 1801 In 1800, France & Spain signed secret pacts & France acquires Louisiana & New Orleans

18 Haitian rev The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity. The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity.

19 Jefferson knew that the French would use their New Orleans’ strategic location to restrict American trade along the river He offered to buy New Orleans and as much of the Mississippi Valley as possible from France ($10 million) Jefferson knew that the French would use their New Orleans’ strategic location to restrict American trade along the river He offered to buy New Orleans and as much of the Mississippi Valley as possible from France ($10 million)

20 Haitian rev Toussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti. Napoleon was unable to put down this rebellion. He had wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America. Toussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti. Napoleon was unable to put down this rebellion. He had wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.

21 Louisiana purchase Since Napoleon lost Haiti & was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 million Jefferson authorizes the purchased of the Louisiana Territory, making it an excellent bargain (about 3 cents an acre) Doubled the size of the US Considered Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment Why? Didn’t fight a war; no blood shed. Since Napoleon lost Haiti & was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 million Jefferson authorizes the purchased of the Louisiana Territory, making it an excellent bargain (about 3 cents an acre) Doubled the size of the US Considered Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment Why? Didn’t fight a war; no blood shed.

22 LP Constitutional ? This sparks a large debate: Did the President even have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution? implied powersloose construction Jefferson used implied powers or loose construction to justify his decision “It was for the best interest of the nation. It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory; and saying to him when of age, I did this for your good; I pretend to no right to bind you; you may disavow me, and I must get out of the scrape as I can: I thought it my duty to risk myself for you.”

23 LP Constitutional ? Hamilton and Federalists were against the purchase Why? It would create a population shift take Federalist power away in Congress “agrarian society” They feared Jefferson’s vision of an “agrarian society” “valley of democracy”Jefferson referred to this as his “valley of democracy”

24 LP Constitutional ? Conflicted with his commitment to debt reductionConflicted with his commitment to debt reduction It facilitated the removal of eastern Native Americans by providing land for their exile It facilitated the removal of eastern Native Americans by providing land for their exile It promised fulfillment of his dream of an agrarian It promised fulfillment of his dream of an agrarian

25 Map 6 of 45 Expansion of the United States

26 Map 7 of 45 Expansion of the United States with Louisiana Purchase 1803

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30 Spring, 1804: Jefferson sends personal secretary Merriweather Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore north Louisiana Corp of Discovery: 28 men who accompanied Lewis/Clark. Included York, an African American slave Carried 21 bags of gifts Establish good & stimulate interest in trading for US manufactured goods Spring, 1804: Jefferson sends personal secretary Merriweather Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore north Louisiana Corp of Discovery: 28 men who accompanied Lewis/Clark. Included York, an African American slave Carried 21 bags of gifts Establish good & stimulate interest in trading for US manufactured goods

31 Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark Her knowledge of trails and mountain passes helped with the success of the expedition. She was also a “diplomat” for Lewis and Clark. Knew the languages of mountain tribes Her presence with a baby was looked upon as good and Lewis and Clark were considered peaceful. Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark Her knowledge of trails and mountain passes helped with the success of the expedition. She was also a “diplomat” for Lewis and Clark. Knew the languages of mountain tribes Her presence with a baby was looked upon as good and Lewis and Clark were considered peaceful.

32 The Expedition yielded maps, knowledge of Native Americans, & overland trail to Pacific It caused many pioneers to turn their attentions westward in search of wealth and freedom.

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34 Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Born in Newark N.J. Democratic Republican Fought with the continental Army in the Revolutionary war. A practicing lawyer in New York City against Hamilton Vice President of the United States (1801-1805). Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Born in Newark N.J. Democratic Republican Fought with the continental Army in the Revolutionary war. A practicing lawyer in New York City against Hamilton Vice President of the United States (1801-1805).

35  Both held grudges against each other & when Hamilton accused Burr of being a liar, Burr challenged the Federalist leader to a duel  Hamilton did not fire & Burr was indicted for murder  Hamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned Burr the enmity of many  Hamilton did not fire & Burr was indicted for murder  Hamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned Burr the enmity of many

36  Political career in ruins, he fled to the West  In 1806, he schemed to take Mexico from Spain and carve a new empire out of the Louisiana Territory  Jefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for treason  Political career in ruins, he fled to the West  In 1806, he schemed to take Mexico from Spain and carve a new empire out of the Louisiana Territory  Jefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for treason  A jury acquitted Burr, basing its decision on Marshall’s narrow definition of treason and the lack of witnesses to any “overt act” by Burr

37  In 1805, the British and French were at war and at a stalemate. In an effort to gain an advantage, each side began blockading the other’s trade routes. The US, dependent on both as trade partners, suffered greatly from the blockades. To add insult to injury, the British began stopping American ships and impressing them again

38 1807, the USS Chesapeake was sent to protect US merchant ships 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop, but it refused. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed 1807, the USS Chesapeake was sent to protect US merchant ships 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop, but it refused. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed Chesapeake affair

39 Most Americans were angered over this incident and public opinion was to go to war with the British Chesapeake article Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported, “We have never, on any occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge, as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance. ”

40 Jefferson was at a loss. He couldn’t go to war against the British because the US Navy was no match for England’s forces. If you were Jefferson, what would you do? Jefferson was at a loss. He couldn’t go to war against the British because the US Navy was no match for England’s forces. If you were Jefferson, what would you do?

41 He decided to boycott by convincing Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807. This cut off trade with all foreign nations By cutting off trade with them, he hoped that it would force them to respect US neutrality (aka economic coercion) He decided to boycott by convincing Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807. This cut off trade with all foreign nations By cutting off trade with them, he hoped that it would force them to respect US neutrality (aka economic coercion)

42 While boycotting, he decided to increase military & naval expenditures Embargo Act hurt the US because it basically shut down America’s import and export business, causing disastrous economic results New England’s economy collapsed (talks of secession started), and smuggling became widespread Jefferson thus repealed the unsuccessful Embargo Act and did not run again for president.

43 American people became angry with Jefferson The Embargo Act was thus replaced by the Non- Intercourse Act by President Madison, which allowed U.S. exports and trade but not with France and Great Britain embargo2 “Our ships all in motion, Once whiten’d the ocean; They sail’d and return’d with a Cargo; Now doom’d to decay They are fallen a prey, To Jefferson, worms and EMBARGO.” A Federalist circular in Massachusetts against the embargo cried out, “Let every man who holds the name of America dear to him, stretch forth his hands and put this accursed thing, this Embargo from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty, of God, and your country; nerve your arms with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson) who would wrest the inestimable germ of your Independence from you---and you shall be Conquerors!!!”

44 Born in Virginia, 1755 Served as an officer with General Washington during the Revolution Attended College of William and Mary and became a practicing attorney. 2 nd cousin of Thomas Jefferson. Marshall became a committed Federalist where his court decisions would reflect the need for a strong national government over the states. Dominated court for 34 years, long after Federalist party died out.


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