2THOMAS JEFFERSON Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of BurgessesFather of the DOISecretary of State under President WashingtonVice President under Adams
3A Man of Contradictions Anti-British/Pro-FrenchAlmost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans.Against slaveryOwned 200 slavesStrict Construction of ConstitutionUsed loose construction of Constitution to justify his purchase of the Louisiana territoryJefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in the “real world”.
4By 1800, the Federalist party was split, clearing the way to the presidency for the Democratic-Republicans.Two men ran for the party nomination: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
5ELECTION OF 1800Jefferson & Burr received an equal number of votes in the Electoral CollegeThis meant that the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives was required to choose a president
6Ironically, Alexander Hamilton campaigned for Jefferson Hamilton disagreed on most issues Jefferson stood onHamilton personally disliked Jefferson and believed Burr to be “a most unfit and dangerous man.”It took 35 ballots, but Jefferson finally won.
7Significance of Election of 1800 REVOLUTION OF 1800John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/RepublicanSignificance of Election of 1800Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution)“Revolutionary” achievementJefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change-over as “the bloodless revolution”
8ELECTION OF 1800Election of 1800: For the second time, a president was saddled with a vice-president he did not want2. To eliminate future problems12th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so their would never be a tie.Federalists Democratic Republicans Adams--Pres Jefferson---Pres Burr---VP----73electoral college
9A New PresidentJefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dressSet precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himselfJefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural addressJefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives
10Champion for the common man JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACYNew type of democracyChampion for the common manBelieved education would prepare them for participation in governmentBelieved education the key to social mobilityEducated should rule
11He kept most Federalist programs. Continued to uphold the treaties signed by Adams& WashingtonFollowed policy of neutralityDid not attack tariffs, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debtWHY?Felt Federalist diplomats signed good treaties with England, Spain, France, and kept US out of war.The Bank of the United States was helping to get the country out of debtFederalists preserved democratic gains, while fending off anarchyWanted to help 2-party system by showing that defeat (for Federalists) didn’t mean disaster
12Jefferson axed a few Federalist policies Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition ActReduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years
13Jefferson and his treasurer Albert Gallatin set out to reduce the national debt Under Hamilton, the government had borrowed money to finance national growthHe thought debt was a good thing: If the government borrowed from its rich citizens, those citizens would have a vested interest in the country’s growthJefferson decided to abandon this policy, trimmed the federal budget, and cut taxes, all of which he succeeded in doing.
14Jeffersonian democracy Jefferson’s Presidency is considered a transitional period in US History.Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy.TJ believed the National Government became too powerful during Adam’s PresidencyWould try to reduce National Govt. power but actually expands Presidential power.KING GEORGE FEDERALISTS JEFFERSONJeffersonian democracy
15Jeffersonian democracy Visualized an agrarian societyFeared industrialization and its effectsFarmers were the chosen class.Laissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s livesFelt slavery would eventually end but predicted it would divide countryUltimate goal: African Americans would assimilate into American societyCo-existence with Native Americans was a long range goal but felt they would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficientFor the time being, felt Native Americans & whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western landsJeffersonian democracy
16New Orleans Spanish Land 1800 Great Britain’s claims in 1783 United States in 1783Spanish land after 1783New Orleans
17In 1800, France & Spain signed secret pacts & France acquires Louisiana & New Orleans French Land in 1801Great Britain’s land after 1783United States in 1783Spanish landNew Orleans is a highly desirable port. WHY?
18Haitian revNEW ORLEANSThe French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century.By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity.
19Buying New Orleans & LOUISIANA Jefferson knew that the French would use their New Orleans’ strategic location to restrict American trade along the riverHe offered to buy New Orleans and as much of the Mississippi Valley as possible from France ($10 million)
20Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America. Haitian revHAITIAN REVOLUTIONToussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti.Napoleon was unable to put down this rebellion. He had wanted to use this island as stepping stone into AmericaForced him to abandon his dream of a French America.
21LOUISIANA PURCHASELouisiana purchaseSince Napoleon lost Haiti & was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 millionJefferson authorizes the purchased of the Louisiana Territory, making it an excellent bargain (about 3 cents an acre)Doubled the size of the USConsidered Jefferson’s greatest accomplishmentWhy? Didn’t fight a war; no blood shed.
22CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION This sparks a large debate:Did the President even have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution?Jefferson used implied powers or loose construction to justify his decision“It was for the best interest of the nation. It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory; and saying to him when of age, I did this for your good; I pretend to no right to bind you; you may disavow me, and I must get out of the scrape as I can: I thought it my duty to risk myself for you.”LP Constitutional ?
23CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION Hamilton and Federalists were against the purchaseWhy?It would create a population shift take Federalist power away in CongressThey feared Jefferson’s vision of an “agrarian society”Jefferson referred to this as his “valley of democracy”LP Constitutional ?
24Constitutional Controversy Conflicted with his commitment to debt reductionIt facilitated the removal of eastern Native Americans by providing land for their exileIt promised fulfillment of his dream of an agrarianLP Constitutional ?
30LEWIS AND CLARKSpring, 1804: Jefferson sends personal secretary Merriweather Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore north LouisianaCorp of Discovery: 28 men who accompanied Lewis/Clark.Included York, an African American slaveCarried 21 bags of giftsEstablish good & stimulate interest in trading for US manufactured goodsThey anticipated a crowded wilderness and hoped to cement relations with Native Americans.Lewis sent boxes of natural history specimens to Jefferson, including plant and tree cuttings
31Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark SACAJAWEAInterpreter and guide for Lewis and ClarkHer knowledge of trails and mountain passes helped with the success of the expedition.She was also a “diplomat” for Lewis and Clark. Knew the languages of mountain tribesHer presence with a baby was looked upon as good and Lewis and Clark were considered peaceful.She was the 15-year old wife of a French Canadian trader Toussaint Charbonneau.She and York were never paid for their services. York requested to be freed after expedition in order to join his wife but he was not freed.
32The Expedition yielded maps, knowledge of Native Americans, & overland trail to Pacific It caused many pioneers to turn their attentions westward in search of wealth and freedom.
34AARON BURR Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Born in Newark N.J. Democratic RepublicanFought with the continental Army in the Revolutionary war.A practicing lawyer in New York City against HamiltonVice President of the United States ( ).He and hot-headed Alexander Hamilton had long despised each other. Hamilton relentlessly blocked Burr’s attempts to rise in society. He thwarted Burr’s attempt to take the election of 1800 from Jefferson & backed the Burr’s opponent in the 1804 election
35Hamilton did not fire & Burr was indicted for murder HAMILTON VS BURRBoth held grudges against each other & when Hamilton accused Burr of being a liar, Burr challenged the Federalist leader to a duelWith his honor at stake, Hamilton accepted the duel even though his son Philip had died from dueling wounds.New York had a law against dueling so the two men met in New Jersey.Hamilton did not fire & Burr was indicted for murderHamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned Burr the enmity of many
36Political career in ruins, he fled to the West BURR ConspiracyPolitical career in ruins, he fled to the WestIn 1806, he schemed to take Mexico from Spain and carve a new empire out of the Louisiana TerritoryJefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for treasonA jury acquitted Burr, basing its decision on Marshall’s narrow definition of treason and the lack of witnesses to any “overt act” by Burr
37Britain and France Still at War In 1805, the British and French were at war and at a stalemate. In an effort to gain an advantage, each side began blockading the other’s trade routes.The US, dependent on both as trade partners, suffered greatly from the blockades.To add insult to injury, the British began stopping American ships and impressing them again
38C H E S A P E A K E A F F A I RChesapeake affair1807, the USS Chesapeake was sent to protect US merchant ships 10 miles off the coast of Virginia.A British ship in the region ordered it to stop, but it refused.British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed
39Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported, Chesapeake articleRegarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported,“We have never, on any occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge, as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance.”Most Americans were angered over this incident and public opinion was to go to war with the British
40If you were Jefferson, what would you do? EMBARGO ACTJefferson was at a loss.He couldn’t go to war against the British because the US Navy was no match for England’s forces.If you were Jefferson, what would you do?
41This cut off trade with all foreign nations Jefferson’s ResponseHe decided to boycott by convincing Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807.This cut off trade with all foreign nationsBy cutting off trade with them, he hoped that it would force them to respect US neutrality (aka economic coercion)England and France were at war & traded most of their natural resources with the USHe was attempting to defend US neutrality by stopping all American exports to the world
42While boycotting, he decided to increase military & naval expenditures Embargo Act hurt the US because it basically shut down America’s import and export business, causing disastrous economic resultsNew England’s economy collapsed (talks of secession started), and smuggling became widespreadJefferson thus repealed the unsuccessful Embargo Act and did not run again for president.Thomas Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807, a self-imposed prohibition on trade with Europe during the Napoleonic Wars, badly damaged the U.S. economy without achieving the law's purpose of getting the warring powers to recognize U.S. neutrality.The Embargo Act hurt American businesses because they could not tradeAmericans started smuggling goods to foreign countriesEconomic situation was so bad it made New England states talk about secessionLasted 15 months & repealed in March of 1809
43EMBARGO ACT American people became angry with Jefferson The Embargo Act was thus replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act by President Madison, which allowed U.S. exports and trade but not with France and Great BritainA Federalist circular in Massachusetts against the embargo cried out,“Let every man who holds the name of America dear to him , stretch forth his hands and put this accursed thing, this Embargo from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty, of God, and your country; nerve your arms with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson) who would wrest the inestimable germ of your Independence from you---and you shall be Conquerors!!!”“Our ships all in motion, Once whiten’d the ocean; They sail’d and return’d with a Cargo; Now doom’d to decay They are fallen a prey, To Jefferson, worms and EMBARGO.”
44JOHN MARSHALL Born in Virginia, 1755 Served as an officer with General Washington during the RevolutionAttended College of William and Mary and became a practicing attorney.2nd cousin of Thomas Jefferson.Marshall became a committed Federalist where his court decisions would reflect the need for a strong national government over the states.Dominated court for 34 years, long after Federalist party died out.