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The Life, times, presidency, and dichotomy of a founding father.

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1 The Life, times, presidency, and dichotomy of a founding father

2 Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the Declaration of Independence Secretary of State under President Washington Vice President under Adams Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the Declaration of Independence Secretary of State under President Washington Vice President under Adams

3 Anti-British/Pro-French Almost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans. Against slavery Owned 200 slaves Strict Construction of Constitution Used loose construction of Constitution to justify his purchase of the Louisiana territory Jefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in the “real world”.

4 Two men ran for the party nomination: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

5 Jefferson & Burr received an equal number of votes in the Electoral College This meant that the Federalist- dominated House of Representatives was required to choose a president

6 Hamilton disagreed on most issues Jefferson stood on Hamilton personally disliked Jefferson and believed Burr to be “a most unfit and dangerous man.” It took 35 ballots, but Jefferson finally won.

7 Significance of Election of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution) Revolutionary“Revolutionary” achievement Jefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change- over as “the bloodless revolution” Significance of Election of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another (bloodless revolution) Revolutionary“Revolutionary” achievement Jefferson referred to his victory and the subsequent change- over as “the bloodless revolution” John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/Republican

8 Election of 1800: Election of 1800: For the second time, a president was saddled with a vice-president he did not want 2. To eliminate future problems  12 th Amendment:  12 th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so their would never be a tie. electoral college FederalistsDemocratic Republicans FederalistsDemocratic Republicans Adams--Pres---65Jefferson---Pres Burr---VP----73

9 Jefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dress Set precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himself Jefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural address Jefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives Jefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dress Set precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himself Jefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural address Jefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives

10 New type of democracy common man Champion for the common man Believed education would prepare citizens for participation in government Believed education the key to social mobility Educated should rule (sound familiar?)

11 Continued to uphold the treaties signed by Adams& Washington Followed policy of neutrality Did not attack tariffs, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debt WHY? Felt Federalist diplomats signed good treaties with England, Spain, France, and kept US out of war. The Bank of the United States was helping to get the country out of debt Federalists preserved democratic gains, while fending off anarchy Wanted to help 2-party system by showing that defeat (for Federalists) didn’t mean disaster

12 Jefferson axed a few Federalist policies Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition Act Reduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition Act Reduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years

13 Under Hamilton, the government had borrowed money to finance national growth He thought debt was a good thing: If the government borrowed from its rich citizens, those citizens would have a vested interest in the country’s growth Jefferson decided to abandon this policy, trimmed the federal budget, and cut taxes, all of which he succeeded in doing.

14 Jefferson’s Presidency is considered a transitional period in US History. Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy. TJ believed the National Government became too powerful during Adam’s Presidency Would try to reduce National Govt. power but actually expands Presidential power. KING GEORGE FEDERALISTS JEFFERSON

15 Visualized an agrarian societyVisualized an agrarian society Feared industrialization and its effectsFeared industrialization and its effects Farmers were the chosen class.Farmers were the chosen class. Laissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s livesLaissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s lives Felt slavery would eventually end but predicted it would divide countryFelt slavery would eventually end but predicted it would divide country Ultimate goal: African Americans would assimilate into American societyUltimate goal: African Americans would assimilate into American society Co-existence with Native Americans was a long range goal but felt they would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficientCo-existence with Native Americans was a long range goal but felt they would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficient For the time being, felt Native Americans & whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western landsFor the time being, felt Native Americans & whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western lands

16 Great Britain’s land after 1783 United States in 1783 Spanish land New Orleans is a highly desirable port. WHY? French Land in 1801 In 1800, France & Spain signed secret pacts & France acquires Louisiana & New Orleans

17 The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity. The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity.

18 Jefferson knew that the French would use their New Orleans’ strategic location to restrict American trade along the river He offered to buy New Orleans and as much of the Mississippi Valley as possible from France ($10 million) Jefferson knew that the French would use their New Orleans’ strategic location to restrict American trade along the river He offered to buy New Orleans and as much of the Mississippi Valley as possible from France ($10 million)

19 Toussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti. Napoleon was unable to put down this rebellion. He had wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America. Toussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti. Napoleon was unable to put down this rebellion. He had wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.

20 Since Napoleon lost Haiti & was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 million Jefferson authorizes the purchased of the Louisiana Territory, making it an excellent bargain (about 3 cents an acre) Doubled the size of the US Considered Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment Why? Didn’t fight a war; no blood shed. Since Napoleon lost Haiti & was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 million Jefferson authorizes the purchased of the Louisiana Territory, making it an excellent bargain (about 3 cents an acre) Doubled the size of the US Considered Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment Why? Didn’t fight a war; no blood shed.

21 Map 7 of 45 Expansion of the United States with Louisiana Purchase 1803

22  In 1805, the British and French were at war and at a stalemate. In an effort to gain an advantage, each side began blockading the other’s trade routes. The US, dependent on both as trade partners, suffered greatly from the blockades. To add insult to injury, the British began stopping American ships and impressing them again

23 1807, the USS Chesapeake was sent to protect US merchant ships 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop, but it refused. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed 1807, the USS Chesapeake was sent to protect US merchant ships 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop, but it refused. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed Chesapeake affair

24 Most Americans were angered over this incident and public opinion was to go to war with the British Chesapeake article Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported, “We have never, on any occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge, as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance. ”

25 He decided to boycott by convincing Congress to pass the Embargo Act of This cut off trade with all foreign nations By cutting off trade with them, he hoped that it would force them to respect US neutrality (aka economic coercion) He decided to boycott by convincing Congress to pass the Embargo Act of This cut off trade with all foreign nations By cutting off trade with them, he hoped that it would force them to respect US neutrality (aka economic coercion)

26 While boycotting, he decided to increase military & naval expenditures Embargo Act hurt the US because it basically shut down America’s import and export business, causing disastrous economic results New England’s economy collapsed (talks of secession started), and smuggling became widespread Jefferson thus repealed the unsuccessful Embargo Act and did not run again for president.

27 Born in Virginia, 1755 Served as an officer with General Washington during the Revolution Attended College of William and Mary and became a practicing attorney. 2 nd cousin of Thomas Jefferson. Marshall became a committed Federalist where his court decisions would reflect the need for a strong national government over the states. Dominated court for 34 years, long after Federalist party died out.

28 How economic pressures, national pride, and strange alliances brought war to a young nation.

29 France and Britain or long time mortal enemies Both are in an arms race with each other Navies compete for control of the seas Napoleon becomes emperor and the Napoleonic Wars begin (1803) Jefferson tries to keep the United States out of the war The Napoleonic Wars

30 America becomes the shipping leader of European/American goods between the U.S. and Europe in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s Battle of Trafalgar destroys the French Navy In response Napoleon tries to disrupt British trade through the “Continental System” a series of laws and embargos that forbade British merchants and its allies from trading in French controlled ports Puts U.S. in a tough spot In response Britain establishes a blockade keeping American Ships from the European Continent trying to cut supplies to the French The closing of Markets to American goods

31 Britain has lots of ships but not enough sailors Conditions on British ships are awful “Floating Hell” Many British Sailors abandon ship and desert to the American Navy or to American merchant ships. British Navy turns to “impressment” to man their ships British ships start searching American ships for deserters Americans are enraged British Impressment of American Sailors

32 Chesapeake-Leopard Incident The British Ship Leopard attempts to board the American Navy Ship Chesapeake looking for alleged deserters Chesapeake refuses, and the Leopard fires on the American Ship Chesapeake surrenders and the British board her and take four men off her decks Americans are outraged, Jefferson orders British Navy ships out of American Waters, and demands that the British renounce Impressement…Britain refuses

33 To keep the United States out of the war between France and Britain, Jefferson passes the Embargo Act of 1807 which prohibits American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign port. He calls the act a “Peaceable Coersion” This law is hated by the people of the New England, many of whom rely on foreign shipping, and many of whom are Federalists. They believe Jefferson has acted “Unconstitutionally” A depression is caused as a result of the Embargo Nicknamed the “Ograbme Act” The Embargo Act

34 Replaces the Embargo Act and reopens trade to all nations EXCEPT Britain and France. (America’s largest trading partners…by far) This was equally as unpopular and a year later it was repealed and trade with Britain and France was reopened. Because of the economic depression in New England, industry takes root to offset the loss in revenue from merchant naval trading The Non-Intercourse Act

35 Native Americans are frustrated over ever dwindling land and trade roads from white expansion Westward past the Mississippi Native Americans form alliances between tribes These alliances threaten white settlements Native Americans also form alliances with the British, the French and the Spanish to help support them (with guns, ammunition, and supplies) in their attempt at curbing American expansion West. The British make deals with the Indians trading weapons and supplies for their assistance in keeping American’s out of Canada. Native American Resistance to U.S. Western Expansion and British Involvement

36 William Henry Harrison goes to Congress and pushes legislation that allows settlers easier access to land ownership in the Midwest territories. He will soon become Governor of the Indiana Territory. Jefferson gave Indians a choice… Assimilate to white culture or move west. “All men are created equal…” Tecumseh and the battle of Tippecanoe

37 Tenskwatwa Tenskwatawa—also known as “The Prophet” leads a religious/political revolution among Indians that means to preserve Indian culture by rejecting white culture. Tecumseh—The Prophets brother, and chief of the Shawnees, unifies the tribes of the Midwest to stand up to white westward expansion and William Henry Harrison Tecumseh

38 Battle of Tippecanoe Upon learning that Tecumseh had left camp, Harrison lead a brigade of soldiers to clear out the Indians from Prophetstown, Indiana. Indians suffer heavy losses and lose faith in The Prophet who they thought would protect them.

39 Many Congressman from both parties wanted war with Britain over control of Canada, and with Spain (Britain’s ally) over control of Florida. These people were called “War Hawks” Two such men became Speaker of the House of Representatives and Congressman and Chair of the Committee of Foreign Affairs Committee, two positions that had great influence over the course of action the country would take in War Hawks

40 These two men were… William Henry Clay

41 These two men were… John C. Calhoun

42 Anybody See A Resemblance?


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