Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER EIGHT THE JEFFERSON ERA Section THREE THE COMING OF WAR."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER EIGHT THE JEFFERSON ERA Section THREE THE COMING OF WAR
VIOLATIONS OF NEUTRALITY -American merchant ships trading all over the world by the late 1700s and early 1800s. -Trade was profitable, but also very risky. -They dealt with long journeys and violent storms- but also with pirates from Africa’s Barbary Coast. -They would steal the ships cargo and hold the crew for ransom. -This continued until the United States sent a large warship called the USS Constitution and a few other ships to end the attacks.
By 1803, the British and French were at war again. Both sides passed laws to stop Americans from trading with the other. In an effort to gain an advantage, each side began blockading the other’s trade routes. This caused our economy to suffer. The British began stopping American ships-looking for runaway British sailors. Sometimes they took American merchants or sailors by accident. Forcing people to serve is Impressment. -Between , Britain impressed about 6,000 American sailors.
-In June 1807, the USS Chesapeake was sent to protect US merchant ships about 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. -The Leopard a British ship ordered the Chesapeake to stop, but it refused. -The British fired three shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered. -Three Americans were killed, 18 wounded and four sailors were impressed.
Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported, “We have never, on any occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge, as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance.” -America was shocked and angered at this attack and had Congress been in session, a war could easily have begun. -Public opinion was to go to war with the British. -Jefferson who had won re-election in 1804 decided against war and went another way.
-There were two main theories about how to deal with Britain following their violations of neutrality. -Some people wanted an embargo, or to ban trade with Britain. -The other option was going to war. -Jefferson knew we couldn’t go to war against the British, because the U.S. Navy would be no match for England’s forces. -If you were Jefferson, what would you do? The British ship – The Leopard. The U.S. Navy had only 22 seagoing vessels in various states of repair and service following the Leopard’s attack.
-Jefferson wanted to boycott or ban trade with all foreign countries. -He convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act of It cut off trade with all foreign nations. -By cutting off trade with them, he hoped that it would force them to respect U.S. neutrality (economic coercion) -American ships could not sail into foreign ports and American ports were closed to British ships.
-During the boycott, Jefferson decided to increase military & naval expenditures. -The Embargo Act hurt US merchants and our economy because it basically shut down America’s import and export business, causing disastrous economic results. -New England’s economy collapsed (talks of secession started), and smuggling became widespread. -Some said the embargo was like, “cutting one’s throat to stop the nosebleed.” -Jefferson thus repealed the unsuccessful Embargo Act in 1809 and chose not run again for president.
American people became angry with Jefferson The embargo had little effect on Britain and France. The Embargo Act was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act in 1809 by the newly elected Congress during the last days of Jefferson’s presidency. It allowed U.S. exports and trade with other nations, but not with France or Great Britain and their colonies. -The act also stated the U.S. would begin trading with the first side that stopped violating U.S. neutrality. -It was no more successful than the Embargo Act had been. President Jefferson being held up by King George and Napoleon, 1809.
CONFLICT IN THE WEST -The British and Native Americans fought against the United States in the early 1800s. THE CONFLICT OVER LAND -Native Americans were losing land as American settlers moved into the Northwest Territory. -The U.S. had acquired the land in the Treaty of Greenville, but not all Native American tribes agreed with it. -Britain saw opportunity and began helping the Native Americans giving them weapons to help stop the American westward growth. -This angered Americans settlers.
-Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief took control and decided to stop the extreme loss of land. -He had fought at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, but refused to participate in the Treaty of Greenville. -Tecumseh, a gifted speaker, explained about the dangers of the new settlers. -He said that the Native Americans had to unite to have a chance to defeat the Americans. -He wanted to unite Native Americans from the Northwest, eastern Mississippi Valley and the South. -His brother, Tenskwatawa or Prophet also helped Tecumseh. -They began Prophetstown on the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers.
-William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indiana Territory was worried about Tecumseh. -He believed that that the British were backing him. -With British backing Tecumseh could be a serious threat to American power in the West. -In an 1810, face to face meeting Harrison told Tecumseh to follow the Treaty of Greenville of Tecumseh told him, “The white people have no right to take the land from the Indians, because the Indians had it first.” -He said that the land belonged to all tribes so a treaty didn’t matter.
-Harrison warned Tecumseh that he should not resist the power of the United States. -Tecumseh went south to try and get the Creek to join him. -Harrison raised an army and decided to attack while Tecumseh was away. -He took his men towards Prophetstown where Prophet ordered an attack on Harrison’s camp on November 7, During an all-day battle, Harrison was able to drive back the Indian forces and destroy Tecumseh’s village. -The Battle of Tippecanoe ended Tecumseh’s dream of a great Indian Confederation and he fled to Canada. ● ● Prophetstown Louisville
-Americans were very upset that Britain was helping the Native Americans. -Young members of Congress led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky called for war against Britain. -These young congressman from the West and South were called “War Hawks”. -They felt our independence would be threatened without war. -They wanted to stop the British from helping the Native Americans -They also wanted to attack Canada and gain more land -Others were upset about the trade that had hurt western farmers and southern planters. John C. Calhoun Henry Clay
-New England Federalists were against war. -They wanted a peaceful resolution, because they wanted to get their trade and economy back to normal. -Some congressman said that another war with Britain would be foolish, because we were not ready to fight. -Our army and navy was very small and poorly-equipped due to the Democratic-Republican cuts under Jefferson. -American’s also could not produce the supplies and weapons that Britain could.
-President James Madison had been elected in 1808 when Jefferson chose not to run. -He got a lot of pressure from the War Hawks -Madison went to Congress and told them they needed to vote on war. -After much discussion the War Hawks won the vote a couple of days later and America was headed to war. -It was the first time that America’s young Congress had declared war. -Madison won re-election in 1812 and he would serve as commander in chief during the War of 1812.