Presentation on theme: "The War of 1812 The War of 1812 would last from 1812-1814 and would see the United States take on the British empire for the second and final time in a."— Presentation transcript:
The War of 1812 The War of 1812 would last from 1812-1814 and would see the United States take on the British empire for the second and final time in a war.
Causes of the War of 1812 Napoleonic Wars By 1812 the Napoleonic Wars or the war France fought with Napoleon Bonaparte, had been waging in Europe since 1803. Jefferson, like Presidents before him, tried to avoid involvement in the problems of other nations, like this on-going war between Britain and France.
Foreign Trade By 1805, however, the British began to clamp down and interfered with U.S. shipping. The British treated U.S. merchant ships as if they were still part of the British Empire, telling them where they could go and where they couldn’t. Basically Britain ruled the seas and bullied American ships.
Impressment Britain also interfered with U.S. shipping by impressment—the kidnapping of American sailors to work on British ships. The British wanted every sailor they could get to fight Napoleon’s Navy.
Chesapeake One of the most outrageous actions the British took was against the U.S. Navy frigate Chesapeake. In 1807, the British ship HMS Leopard attacked the USS Chesapeake near Norfolk Virginia and Impressed four U.S. sailors. Jefferson ordered all British ships out of American waters and ports. The Chesapeake fought in the War of 1812 but was captured by the British. "Don't give up the ship", the dying command of James Lawrence in 1813 aboard the USS Chesapeake
Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson and Congress passed the Embargo Act of 1807 to stop all foreign trade. The act prohibited U.S. ships from sailing to and trading with foreign ports. This act almost destroyed the U.S. economy. Farmers, Industry, and Merchants alike depended on trade. It was described as “Cutting one’s throat to deal with a nose bleed” Congress repealed the embargo in 1809. This "O-Grab-Me" cartoon expressed Americans disdain for the Act. The Turtle represents the Act and the trade is holding a barrel of sugar.
Tecumseh Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, said the land could not be sold without the consent of all tribes. He believed that the tribes needed to work together to stop land loss to American settlers. Many Native Americans began to follow Tecumseh and his holy-man brother and form an alliance.
Tecumseh’s War Tecumseh and his tribes led raids on American settlers all throughout the Ohio River Valley. American’s believe the British were behind these attacks. The British Canadians made lots of money of the fur trade with Indians and didn’t want to see that stop or be given to the Americans.
Battle of Tippecanoe Then, in November 1811, U.S. forces defeated the Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe. William Henry Harrison led the U.S. to victory in the Battle. Tecumseh and his followers fled to Canada, where the British welcomed them. Americans became increasingly angry over British interference. Harrison would run and be elected President with his running mate John Tyler in 1840. His slogan was “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!”
War Hawks Westerners called War Hawks demanded that Congress declare war on Britain. President James Madison argued to increase the size of the Army and Navy (this was ignored, the militia system was still popular) On June 18, 1812, war was declared. Chief among the War Hawks were Henry Clay. Most of them came from the west and the north, areas near the frontier that would benefit from a British defeat. Henry Clay James Madison
A war in two parts The War of 1812 had two main phases. From 1812 to 1814, Britain concentrated on its war against Napoleon. After Britain defeated France in 1814, British leaders turned their attention to the United States and did some serious damage.
The U.S. Military When the war began, the United States military was weak. It was small, poorly supplied, and had ineffective leaders. Fortunately, the Navy’s warships fought well in the war. The USS Constitution and the USS United States won early victories that encouraged the public.
Battle for Lake Erie The most important U.S. naval victory took place on Lake Erie. In September 1813, a British force attacked American ships commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry on the lake. Perry won the battle and famously said in a message, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”
The Battle of the Thames and Victory in the West After Lake Erie General William Henry Harrison defeated the British at the Battle of the Thames near Detroit. This victory ended the British threat in the Northwest and also claimed the life of Tecumseh who died fighting for the British. Because of his leadership and fighting ability, Tecumseh is one of the more celebrated Native Americans of all time
Napoleon defeated In 1814, Napoleon is defeated after he invaded Russia and is forced into exile. The British now send their battle hardened troops to deal with America. Rule #1 in warfare, DON’T INVADE RUSSIA!
The Burning of Washington D.C. A British Army landed south of the Capital and defeated an American army at the The Battle of Bladensburg. They then marched to Washington DC where they burned the capital and the White House, looting the city. It has been called "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to America”