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Chapter 8, Section 3 The Coming of War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8, Section 3 The Coming of War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8, Section 3 The Coming of War

2 Violations of Neutrality
Trading overseas was profitable but very risky for American merchants Ships had to travel vast distances often through violent storms Risk of capture by pirates from the Barbary States of North Africa in the Mediterranean USS Constitution Large United States warship sent to end Barbary Pirate attacks

3 Violations of Neutrality
France and Great Britain go to war in 1803 Each side wants to stop the United States from supplying the enemy with goods Each government designed laws to prevent American merchants from trading with the other British and French navies captured American merchant ships searching for war supplies

4 Violations of Neutrality
Great Britain began searching American ships for British sailors who had run away from the British navy Sometimes American sailors were captured by mistake and forced to fight in the British navy Impressment Attack on the Chesapeake British ship Leopard stopped the United States ship Chesapeake and tried to remove sailors The American captain of the Chesapeake refused British took the sailors by force

5 The Embargo Act Americans were unsure of how to react to Great Britain’s violation of United States’s neutrality Some called for war while others favored an embargo Banning of trade Embargo Act Banned all trade with other countries American ships could not sail to foreign ports American ports were closed to British ships

6 The Embargo Act The effect of the law was devastating to American merchants Northern states hit especially hard The embargo damaged President Thomas Jefferson’s popularity Strengthened the Federalist party Angry merchants petitioned Jefferson to repeal the embargo The Embargo had very little effect on Great Britain or France

7 Non-Intercourse Act Banned trade only with Britain, France, and their colonies Stated that America would resume trading with the first side that stopping violating US Neutrality No more successful than the embargo act

8 Conflict in the West Disagreements between Great Britain and the United States went beyond the shenanigans on the high seas On the western frontier, British and Native Americans clashed with American settlers over land

9 The Conflict Over Land In the early 1800’s, Native Americans in the old Northwest territory continued to lost their land as thousands of settlers poured into the region United States gained this land in the Treaty of Greenville, but Native American leaders who did not agree to the treaty protested the settler’s arrival Frustrated Native American groups considered what to do next Britain saw an opportunity to slow American westward expansion British agents supplied Native Americans with arms

10 Tecumseh Resists U.S. Settlers
Shawnee Chief Brilliant Speaker Warned other Native Americans about the dangers of settlers Promoted unification of Native American peoples to resist settlers

11 The Battle of Tippecanoe
William Henry Harrison Governor of Indiana Territory Alarmed with Tecumseh’s activities Was convinced that Tecumseh had British backing William Henry Harrison and Tecumseh met face to face in 1810 Harrison insisted that Tecumseh follow the Treaty of Greenville Tecumseh argued that the white settlers had no rights to Native American lands Harrison warned Tecumseh not to resist the power of the United States

12 The Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh journeyed south seeking the support of the Creek nation During his absence, William Henry Harrison attacked Battle of Tippecanoe Native Americans launched an attack on Harrison’s camp on November 7, 1811 After an all day battle, Harrison’s soldiers forced the Native Americans to retreat and then destroyed Tecumseh’s village The Native American defeat destroyed Tecumseh’s dream of a great Native American confederation Tecumseh fled to Canada

13 Tecumseh’s Curse Legend has it that after his defeat at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, Tecumseh placed a curse on the United States that every president elected in a year ending in “0” would perish in office This curse came true when William Henry Harrison died in office in 1841 (elected in 1840) of pneumonia (also the nation’s shortest presidency) From this point forward, every president elected in a year ending in “0”died in office, terminating with Ronald Regan (elected in 1980), who survived an assassination attempt

14 Call For War Evidence of British support to Native Americans angered Americans Many felt that Great Britain encouraged Tecumseh’s actions in the west

15 The War Hawks War Hawks Calls for war increased
Young members of Congress who took the lead in calling for war against Britain Given the nickname by their political opponents Many from the South and the West Henry Clay (of Kentucky) John C. Calhoun (of South Carolina) Felix Grundy (of Tennessee) Calls for war increased Leaders wanted to put a stop to British influence among Native Americans Wanted to invade Canada and obtain more land for settlement Others angered by British trade restrictions

16 The Opposition New England Federalists were the strongest opponents to the war Business people and merchants there wanted to renew friendly business ties with Great Britain for economic purposes Others argued that a war against Great Britain would be foolish United States not yet ready Small army and navy Inability to mass produce military supplies

17 Declaring War James Madison (father of the Bill of Rights) was elected President in 1808 In 1812, he decided that Congress must vote on the war War Hawks won in Congress War was declared against Great Britain (and for the first time ever in the nation) War of 1812

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