Objectives Why Tecumseh built a confederacy among Native American nations. Why the War Hawks wanted to go to war.
Americans in Foreign Seas As America grew, and France and England were engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, American mrchant ships found markets all over the world.
Barbary Pirates When American merchant vessels sailed in the Mediterrean, pirates from Tripoli would stop American ships, and demand tribute (bribe). American politicians refused to pay any tribute and sent naval forces to the region.
War with Tripoli The ruler in Tripoli cut down the American Embassy flagpole, a declaration of war. The Philadelphia, an American warship was captured and the crew jailed. To prevent the Philadelphia from being used by the pirates, Captain Stephen Decatur led a raid and sank the ship. The war ended and the captured sailors were returned after a $60,000 ransom was paid.
Freedom of the Seas America’s thriving merchant fleet depended on its ability to sail the seas freely. As the Napoleonic wars intensified, France and England began to interfere with American shipping.
Neutral Rights Violations America tried to remain neutral in its dealings with France and England. Then both sides put into place plans to stop American ships from trading with the warring nations.
Impressment Impressment is the practice of taking sailors from American vessels and forcing them to serve in the Royal Navy.
Attack on the Chesapeake In June, 1807 the British warship Leopard attacked the American ship Chesapeake off the Virginia coast. Americans were killed and wounded.
Embargo Act Congress passed the EmbargAct in 1807. It prohibited trade with France and England. The result of the embargo was a disaster for American shipping.
Election of 1808 After two terms, Jefferson decided to step down as president. James Madison was chosen by Jefferson to succede him. Madison won the election and became the fourth President of the United States.
French Trickery France agreed to lift trade restrictions against America, but it was a ploy and the French continued to sieze American vessels. Madison was aangry, but he realized the greater threat was England so he did nothing.
Frontier Conflicts As Americans began moving westward, coflicts would naturally develop with Native Americans. Because they ha already been there.
William Henry Harrison William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana, feared the possiblity of the confederacy joining with the British. He warned the Indians against this.
Battle of Tippecanoe In November, 1811, Harrison’s forces attacked the Indian Confederacy near the Tippecanoe river in present day Indiana. The Indians were defeated. The battle had the unwanted effect of having the Confederation join with the British.
War Hawks The War Hawks were politicians primarily from the west and south. Their nationalism brought pressure to move the country toward war.
Leading War Hawks Henry Clay, KentuckyJohn C. Calhoun, S. Carolina
Declaration of War On June 18, 1812, Congress declares war for the first time.