Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11.4 The Second War for Independence The War of 1812 When Great Britain and France went to war in 1803 – America would find itself in the middle."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11.4 The Second War for Independence The War of 1812 When Great Britain and France went to war in 1803 – America would find itself in the middle of it with no way out. – Napoleon was looking to conquer England and Europe – England was looking to get back its colonies while stopping France
The British make the first move… – Parliament pass laws that allow British ships to inspect any ship in Atlantic Ocean Looking for weapons being sent to France – What happens instead? American sailors and ships are being forced to serve for the British – Called impressment – Why? » They need more ships to attack France
So what can Pres. Jefferson do? Well, we can’t fight them yet – Navy USA = 6 ships UK = 800 ships So, we make a law to keep us from having to deal with Britain – Embargo Act of 1807 Law banned trade with all foreign countries Goal: – Keep USA away from trouble in Atlantic Ocean
Reaction to Embargo Act Democratic Republican’s – Loved it! – Let America take care of itself – Why were this way? They were all farmers in South Federalist supporters – Hated it! – Main source of income was doing trade with UK and France They were all merchants in North – What would you do if you lived in the North? They thought about claiming independence from the South and their POTUS…
Meanwhile, it’s Time for another election. TJ is done – Served 2 terms Democratic – Republican – James Madison Technically still Federalists… – Charles Pinckney – Landslide victory for Madison Becomes 4 th POTUS
How does Pres. Madison deal with unpopularity of Embargo Act. Non –Intercourse Act of 1809 – Banned trade with France and Britain only – Opened trade to West Indies and China – Goal: Keep merchants in North happy… – It worked.
The British get sneaky… Persuade Indians in the NW territory to attack American settlers – Aided by: British weapons Promise to have land back if they help Britain take back colonies. – Indians led by Tecumseh Leads 700 indians into Indiana Territory to take on U.S. Army – Led by William Henry Harrison » Governor of Indiana territory
Battle of Tippecanoe US Army destroy Indian warriors – Chase them away from battle of field. Then, Harrison orders the Indians village to be burned to the ground. – Tecumseh and other tribes give up on their attacks on US settlers
American Response to Indian Attacks It was the British that forced them to do it! Pres. Madison asks Congress to decide what to do. – Congress: We must declare war on England and end this for once. War Hawks – Led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
War of 1812 begins… June 1812 – America declares war on England At time of war: – American army: 7,000 men – Navy: 6 ships – Led by U.S.S. Constitution June 1812 – England declares war on America At time of war: – British army: 10,000 men – Navy: 800 ships – 85 surrounding East Coast…
First battle of War of 1812 August 19, 1812 – Off of coast of Maine USS Constitution Vs. HMS Guerriere HMS Guerriere took first shots – Bounced off the side of “Old Ironsides” USS Constitution returns fire – Blasted side in ship with “the shock of an earthquake” We capture the crew and watch the Guerriere sink…
The British lick their wounds and send more ships….lots more.
Review Questions What is the Embargo Act? What is the Non-intercourse Act? Who is William Henry Harrison? What was the first battle of the War of 1812?