Presentation on theme: "The War of 1812 CAUSES. Conflict in Europe Britain and France began another conflict – Napoleonic Wars 1806 – France excluded British goods from Europe."— Presentation transcript:
The War of 1812 CAUSES
Conflict in Europe Britain and France began another conflict – Napoleonic Wars 1806 – France excluded British goods from Europe Great Britain decided to retaliate by blockading Europe’s coasts
Aggression Extends towards US By 1807 Britain had seized more than 1,000 American ships, confiscated their cargoes France had seized about ½ that number of US ships SO WHO DO WE VIEW AS THE BIGGER THREAT?
Impressment Most of American anger focused on British British would seize US citizens from ships and force them into the British “Navy” known as impressment.
Chesapeake Incident June 1807 – commander of a British Warship demanded the right to board and search the US naval frigate for British deserters When US captain refused, British opened fire Killed 3, wounded 18 Americans
Jefferson’s Reaction Convinced Congress to pass Embargo of 1807 hurt Britain and other European powers to convince them to honor American neutrality Hurt US economy, so Congress lifted embargo in 1809.
Madison’s Non-Intercourse Act Re-opened trade with all nations, except GB and France 1810, expired Non-Intercourse and passed Macon’s Bill No. 2 – reopened trade, but President had power to prohibit commerce if continued to be belligerent Napoleon stopped, so only put Embargo on Britain
Conflict with Natives over Westward Expansion Shawnee chief Tecumseh began organizing fights against expanding white settlers In 1811, Tecumseh’s brother was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe by Governor of Illinois, William Henry Harrison Found out Native Americans were fighting with arms from British Canada War Hawks called for declaration of War
War Hawks Southern and Western young congressman who pushed for war What could they gain? MORE LAND Henry Clay of Kentucky John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
James Madison Declares War Elected in 1808, Republican from VA By 1812, decided to go to war Felt Britain was trying to strangle American trade and cripple US economy Congress approved war early June 1812