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Chapter I: W/h Questions. Wh- Questions allow a speaker to find out more information about topics. They are as follows: When? Where? Who? Why? How? What?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter I: W/h Questions. Wh- Questions allow a speaker to find out more information about topics. They are as follows: When? Where? Who? Why? How? What?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter I: W/h Questions

2 Wh- Questions allow a speaker to find out more information about topics. They are as follows: When? Where? Who? Why? How? What? Time Place Person Reason Manner Object/Idea/Action

3 Other words can also be used to inquire about specific information: Which (one)? Whose? Whom? How much? How many? How long? How often? How far? What kind (of)? Choice of alternatives Possession Person (objective formal) Price, amount (non-count) Quantity (count) Duration Frequency Distance Description

4 The "grammar" used with wh- questions depends on whether the topic being asked about is the "subject" or "predicate" of a sentence. For the subject pattern, simply replace the person or thing being asked about with the appropriate wh-word. (Someone has my baseball.) Who has my baseball? (Something is bothering you.) What is bothering you? For the predicate pattern, wh- question formation depends on whether there is an "auxiliary" verb in the original sentence. Auxiliary or "helping" verbs are verbs that precede main verbs. Auxiliary verbs are italicized in the following sentences.

5 I can do it. They are leaving. I have eaten my lunch. I should have finished my homework.

6 To make a question using the predicate pattern, first form a yes/no question by inverting the subject and (first) auxiliary verb. Then, add the appropriate wh- word to the beginning of the sentence. (You will leave some time.) ? will you leave When will you leave? (He is doing something.) ? is he doing What is he doing? (They have been somewhere.)? have they been Where have they been?

7 If there is no auxiliary and the verb is "be," invert the subject and verb, then add the appropriate wh- word to the beginning of the sentence. (He is someone.) ? is he Who is he? (The meeting was some time.)? was the meeting When was the meeting?

8 If there is no auxiliary and the verb is not "be," add do to the beginning of the sentence. Then add the appropriate wh-question word. Be sure to "transfer" the tense and number from the main verb to the word do. (You want something.) ? do you want What do you want? (You went somewhere.) ? did you go (past tense) Where did you go? (She likes something.)? does she like (third person -s) What does she like?

9 Chapter 2: Yes/No Questions In English, there are two basic types of questions: yes/no questions and wh- questions. Yes/no questions are asked using be, have, do, or a modal verb. Yes/no questions always begin with one of these verbs and can be answered with a simple yes or no, or with the question repeated as a statement.behavedomodal verb Note: It's impossible to ask a yes/no question without one of these auxiliary verbs. He want a car? Does he want a car? You going to eat with us? Are you going to eat with us?

10 BE Use the verb be to ask about identity, description, location, and present or past activities and situations. Identity / Description You can use be plus a noun or adjective to ask about the identity or description of a person, place, or thing.

11 Am I your best friend?Yes (you are). Is this interesting?No (it is not). Are these islands part of Greece? Yes (they are). Was his idea good?No (it wasn't). Were they happy?Yes (they were).

12 Am I your best friend?Yes (you are). Is this interesting?No (it is not). Are these islands part of Greece? Yes (they are). Was his idea good?No (it wasn't). Were they happy?Yes (they were).

13 Location Be plus a prepositional phrase asks about present or past location. Am I near your house?No (you aren't). Is he in Panamá?Yes (he is). Are we at the border yet?No (we're not). Was his apartment above a bakery?Yes (it was). Were the demonstrations downtown?No (they weren't).

14 Current activity / situation To ask about a current activity or situation, use the present progressive: present tense of be + present participle (verb+ing). Am I going with you and Tom? Yes (you are). Is England adopting the euro? No (it isn't). Are we seeing a play tonight? Yes (we are). Is she working today? No (she isn't).

15 Past activity / situation To ask about a past activity or situation, use the past progressive: past tense of be + present participle. Was it raining? Yes (it was). Was Anna cooking? No (she wasn't). Were the prisoners rebelling? Yes (they were). Were they singing? No (they weren't).

16 Past event To ask about something that happened to someone or something, use the passive voice: past tense of be + past participle (verb + ed or en): Was he given a reward? Yes (he was). Was I chosen? No (you weren't). Were you driven home in a taxi? Yes (we were). Were dinosaurs killed by meteors? No (they weren't).

17 HAVE Use the verb have to ask if some action has taken place or whether somebody has done something. Notice that the auxiliary verb have is in the present tense* and the main verb is always a past participle. Has your brother left? No (he hasn't). Have you flown before? Yes (I have). Has the party started? Yes (it has). Have the guests eaten? No (they haven't). *It is possible to ask a yes/no question with had, but this is done in very specific situations and will be explained in a future lesson.

18 DO Use the verb do to obtain facts about people, places, or things. Do is always followed by the subject and then a verb in the infinitive without to. Do they smoke? No (they don't). Does Bogotá get cold? Yes (it does). Did it work? No (it didn't). Do flying fish really fly? No (they don't). Does running hurt your knees? Yes (it does). Did teaching challenge you? Yes (it did).

19 MODALS Use modal verbs to obtain more information about possibilities or uncertainties.modal verbs Modals are always followed by verbs in the infinitive without to. Can we stay? Yes (we can stay). Could this be true? Yes (it could be true). Should they stop? No (they shouldn't). May I help you? Yes (you may). Will it rain? No (it won't rain). Would you go with me? Yes (I would).

20 Remember: When asking a question with do or a modal verb, the main verb remains in the infinitive without to. Do you to drink coffee? Do you drink coffee? Does she to work here? Does she work here? Can I to go with you? Can I go with you? Should we to her? Should we her?

21 However, if there are two verbs in the infinitive after do, the second infinitive must use to. Do you want drink coffee? Do you want to drink coffee? Does she like work here? Does she like to work here? Did you need go home? Did you need to go home?

22 Remember: It's impossible to ask a yes/no question without an auxiliary verb. He know your phone number? Does he know your phone number? They returning today? Are they returning today? Note that there are several ways to answer yes/no questions, especially with contractions. Is he busy? No. No, he isn't. No, he's not. No, he is not. No, he isn't busy. No, he's not busy. No, he is not busy.

23 Chapter 3: Past tense Explanation 1. The simple past tense is expressed with the past form of the verb and nothing else. My grandfather died last year. (C) My grandfather was died last year. (I) My grandfather has died last year. (I) 2. The simple past tense refers to a. action which occurred at a specific time in the past b. completed action c. past status

24 Examples Specific past action I ate lunch at noon today. He drove to work yesterday. Completed action She finally mailed the letter. Jan finished her report on time. Past status John was still single in Jane was a movie star.

25 Chapter 4: Infinitives Infinitives are defined as to + base form of the verb. They have several functions. 1. Used as subjects and subject complements. To know me is to love me. To live in Hawaii is my lifetime dream.Hawaii 2. Used as objects following certain verbs*. I wanted to tell you how much I appreciated your gift. He hesitated to ask the embarrassing question. 3. Used as a shortened form of in order to. You must take this medicine (in order) to get well. I went to the bank to cash a check.

26 Infinitives can sometimes take objects of their own. We hope to find the person who did this. I was asked to make a dessert for the potluck dinner.

27 *These verbs are commonly followed by infinitives. Afford aim decide seem agree arrange choose know( how) deserve learn (how) stop Ask Vote Would ike

28 Chapter 7: Gerund Gerunds are defined as the -ing form of a verb. They have several functions. 1. Used as subjects and complements Skiing is my favorite sport. Hiking can be very strenuous. Seeing is believing 2. Used as objects following prepositions and prepositional expressions Thanks for tending my children. The job consists of typing, filing, and answering the phone. 3. Used as objects following certain verbs*. The children enjoyed watching the parade. Ms. Terrell avoided paying her taxes until it was too late.

29 Gerunds can sometimes take objects of their own: Roland is afraid of making mistakes. Sandy is considering leaving New York.

30 SOME VERBS COMMONLY FOLLOWED BY GERUND admit begin discuss hate love practice regret stop avoid deny advise can't help dislike hesitate mention prefer remember suggest go like postpone anticipate complete enjoy imagine mind quit resent threaten recommend start understand appreciate consider finish intend miss recall resist tolerate attempt delay forget keep neglect recollect risk try

31 *The verb stop is followed by either a gerund or an infinitive, depending on meaning. I stopped smoking (meaning “I no longer smoke”) He stopped to light his pipe (meaning”He stopped doing something else in order to light his pipe”) **Notice that the verb phrase, can’t help (eaning “can’t prevent” or can’t stop”) is used with gerund. His jokes are so funny that I can’t help laughing at them I couldn’t help overhearing your comment ***The verb go is followed by the –ing form of many “activity verbs”: go shopping, go dancing, go skiing, go bowling and others

32 Chapter 8: Comparisons The Comparative Form for Adjectives One-syllable wordstwo-syllable words ending in y two syllables or more not ending in y add er drop the y and add ieruse more / don't add er big biggernoisy noisierdangerous more dangerous old olderbusy busierexpensive more expensive nice nicercrazy craziercomfortable more comfortable young youngerlazy lazierhumid more humid fast fasterfunny funniertired more tired cheap cheaperdry drieracceptable more acceptable

33 There are some exceptions: good, bad, far, and fun are adjectives that don't follow the rules when making the comparative form. good - better Bad - worse Far - farther fun - more fun

34 Never use two comparatives together on an adjective: more cheaper more noisier more older

35 The Superlative Form; (differences in 3 + things or 3 + people) One-syllable wordstwo syllable words ending in y two syllables or more not ending in y add estdrop the y and ad iestuse most / don't add est big biggestnoisy noisiestdangerous most dangerous old oldestbusy busiestexpensive most expensive nicer nicestcrazy craziestcomfortable most comfortable young youngestlazy laziesthumid most humid fast fastestfunny funniesttired most tired cheap cheapestdry driestacceptable most acceptable

36 There are some exceptions: good, bad, far, and fun are adjectives that don't follow the rules when making the comparative form. good - best bad - worst far - farthest fun - most fun

37 Never use two superlatives together on an adjective: most cheapest most noisiest It's often necessary to use "the" in front of the superlative:

38 Comparative Adverbs Adverbs in the comparative form describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Adverbs usually end in "ly" Making the comparative form for adverbs is not as easy as making the comparative form for adjectives. Remember, most adverbs end in "ly," so most adverbs are two-syllable words; therefore, you will usually use "more" in front of the adverb to make the comparison. Many Americans ignore the rules for comparative adverbs, but you should still learn how to use them properly.

39 so most adverbs are two-syllable words; therefore, you will usually use "more" in front of the adverb to make the comparison. Many Americans ignore the rules for comparative adverbs, but you should still learn how to use them properly.

40 A subway train can get you through the city more quickly than a bus. ("more quickly" describes the verb "get." "Get" is a verb.) A laptop computer allows her to do her work more efficiently.

41 Superlative Adverbs Adverbs in the superlative form describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Adverbs usually end in "ly" Making the superlative form for adverbs is even more difficult than the comparative form. Many Americans avoid doing it, so you might not hear it used very often.the comparative form

42 Example: He rides his bike most frequently in the morning. She is most likely to become a doctor after she finishes med school. Birds sing most beautifully in the morning.

43 Some adverbs don't use "ly" endings. For these words, just add "est." They play well together, but they play best when they're under pressure. They perform the worst on the field when they don't practice. John is the hardest working player on the team. Burt runs the fastest, so he's a wide receiver.

44 Chapter 9: Transitional Words Illustration Thus, for example, for instance, namely, to illustrate, in other words, in particular, specifically, such as. Contrast On the contrary, contrarily, notwithstanding, but, however, nevertheless, in spite of, in contrast, yet, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, or, nor, conversely, at the same time, while this may be true. Addition And, in addition to, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only- but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise. Time After, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, for a minute, hour, day, etc., during the morning, day, week, etc., most important, later, ordinarily, to begin with, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.

45 Space At the left, at the right, in the center, on the side, along the edge, on top, below, beneath, under, around, above, over, straight ahead, at the top, at the bottom, surrounding, opposite, at the rear, at the front, in front of, beside, behind, next to, nearby, in the distance, beyond, in the forefront, in the foreground, within sight, out of sight, across, under, nearer, adjacent, in the background. Concession Although, at any rate, at least, still, thought, even though, granted that, while it may be true, in spite of, of course. Similarity or Comparison Similarly, likewise, in like fashion, in like manner, analogous to. Emphasis Above all, indeed, truly, of course, certainly, surely, in fact, really, in truth, again, besides, also, furthermore, in addition. Details Specifically, especially, in particular, to explain, to list, to enumerate, in detail, namely, including.

46 Examples For example, for instance, to illustrate, thus, in other words, as an illustration, in particular. Consequence or Result So that, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then. Summary Therefore, finally, consequently, thus, in short, in conclusion, in brief, as a result, accordingly. Suggestion For this purpose, to this end, with this in mind, with this purpose in mind, therefore

47 Chapter 11: Embedded Questions An embedded question is contained within a statement or a question. The important thing here is word order: 1. I don't know where the library is. 2. Do you know where the library is? compare to: 3. Where is the library? The first two examples show an embedded question. The word order is subject and then verb. The third example is just a regular question in which the word order is verb and then subject. In this lesson, we will learn about how to make questions and statements that have questions within them.

48 Frequently these are used in conversation: What does this taste like? I don't know what it tastes like. Do you know what it tastes like? Where did you buy this cake? I can't remember where I bought it.

49 Where did they move to? I have no idea where they moved to. Does anyone know where they moved to? Why do leaves change color in the fall. I don't know why they change colors. Is there a website that can explain why leaves change color in the fall?

50 How long has she been gone on her trip. I'm not sure how long she's been gone. Does anyone know how long she's been gone? How much did you pay for those shoes? I'm not sure how much I paid for them. Does the receipt show how much I paid for them?

51 When did she learn how to ride a tricycle? I can't remember when she learned. Do you think she remembers when she learned to do that?


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