Presentation on theme: "Era of Reform: How does overcoming obstacles lead to change?"— Presentation transcript:
1Era of Reform: How does overcoming obstacles lead to change? Rebels with a Cause!Era of Reform: How does overcoming obstacles lead to change?
2Spirit of ReformA revival of religious feeling swept across the nation from the 1800s and 1840s. Church leaders called this the Second Great Awakening a religious revival that appealed to people’s emotions.This was the idea that everyone could gain forgiveness for their sins, or be saved by doing good works.Men and women alike were now given a reason to work for the improvement of society.Optimistic ideas inspired Americans during this time!!!
3TranscendentalismThe idea that people could transcend, or rise above, the material things in life. A philosophy which taught that people should “transcend” go beyond logical thinking you reach true understanding with the help of emotion and intuition.
4Ralph Waldo EmersonInspired Thoreau, Dickinson, Hawthorne & Walt Whitman—Central figure in the transcendentalist movementBELIEVED EVERY HUMAN HAD UNLIMITED POTENTIAL—COULD TRANSCEND IF THEY TRUSTED THEIR EMOTIONS AND INTUITIONEntered Harvard University at 14—Great Minister—married only 2 years—tuberculosis. Sent him searching for vital truthWrote civil War hymns, poems, 5,000 letters remain
5Henry David Thoreau “…government in best which governs not at all” I dea of individualism question society, institutions, and rulesDO NOT CONFORM TO OTHERS EXPECTATIONSRebel: spent 2 years in solitude and wrote a 6,000 page journal.Once jailed for refusing to pay taxes which supported the Mexican-American War
6Utopian Community: Model communities created by transcendentalists People in these communities A group of were working to establish a perfect society on Earth
7Utopian Communities The Shakers Brook Farm Community Started by Ann Lee6,000 membersBanned private ownership of propertyBuilt beautiful furnitureNo copulation because it was seen as competitive in nature.Started by George Ripley near BostonPeople were encouraged to live “brotherly cooperation” instead of competing with one anotherShared labor of supporting themselves by farming, teaching, and making clothes
9Romantics:An idea that each individual brings unique perspective to the world that is best expressed by emotion rather than reason.Thomas Cole: Created romantic, soft paintingsNathaniel Hawthorne: Wrote the Scarlett LetterEmily Dickinson: “If I can stop one heart from breaking…”Poems were never published until after her death, cared for her ailing father
10Romantics Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Paul Revere’s ride Edgar Allen Poe: The Raven “Once upon a midnight dreary, where I pondered, weak and weary”
12Prison Reform1841-A woman named Dorothea Dix agreed to teach Sunday school at jailShe was horrified to see many prisoners were bound in chains and locked in ages children accused of minor thefts were jailed with adult criminalsWere conditions this bad everywhere????Dix found that this was the case throughout Mass.Mentally Ill: locked in dirty cages, whipped, etc. Dix believed they needed care and treatment NOT punishmentCampaigned for prison reform until she died by 1887 state govt’s no longer put debtors in prison, outlawed cruel punishmentsShe showed that reformers could lead society to make significant changes
13What would life be like if there weren’t public schools? What advantages do you have being able to attend public school?
14History of Education in America Beginnings: town school paid for by the communitiesStress on the BibleMiddle/Southern Colonies: Parents, private tutors12 colonies: few went beyond elementary schooltrade/apprentice work was popularPrinting, blacksmith, farming
15Ivy League Colleges 1636-Harvard was the 1st Cornell, Dartmouth, Princeton, University of Penn, Yale, Brown, ColumbiaMain focus was religionsNO GIRLS ALLOWED!!
16ImmigrationCause: Immigration increased Effect: Better Education could make more productive workers & responsible citizens A. Teachers: Usually young men B. Textbooks: McGuffy’s reader, compiled by William Holmes McGuffy—an educator and Presbyterian minister—taught morals and social values
17Horace Mann 1st Secretary of Education in 1837 in Massachusetts Doubled school budget in Mass spoke out on the need for public schoolsIncreased teacher’s salariesExtended the school yearEstablished the 1st school for teacher trainingWhy were these things important to him?
18Women in EducationEmma Willard: Women’s Troy Female Seminary—1st college level institution for womenOberlin: 1837—1st co-ed college in America
19African American Schools Irregular EducationAllowed not just girls, but all African American StudentsHBCU-Historically Black College and Universitya. Howard, Tuskegee, Clark, Morehouse
20The Movement to end Slavery How can a land of the free still allow slavery?By the 1830s many people were asking this question Abolitionist: a person who supports the ending of slaveryStruggle begins:Some opposition since the Revolutionary war, Quakers stopped owing in 1776, 1796 every state as south as VA had anti-slavery societies. Congress passed a law ending slave trade in 1808 still accepted in the North
21How to End?Abolitionists wanted to end slavery, but disagreed how to end it!!!RevoltPeacefulGive slaveholders time to develop farming methodsBlacks & Whites were a part of the movementWilliam Lloyd Garrison (white man)-started an abolitionist newspaper called The LiberatorDemanded the immediate freeing of all slavesAngry proslavery groups destroyed his press and burned his house
22Frederick Douglass An escaped slave Became the leader in the abolition movementHis autobiography was published in 1845 and was an instant best sellerBrilliant-started his own newspaper – North StarThrough his writings and speeches, he waged a fierce campaign against slavery
23Women get InvolvedMany women were inspired by religious movements to become involved in abolitionFaced ViolenceGrimke sisters: raised in the south by a slaveholding familyWent north and became QuakersSpoke about the poverty and pain of slaverySpoke to large crowds of men and women and paved the way for other women to speak in publicSojourner Truth: Former slaveStrongly spiritualAn outstanding speaker who was inspired by Douglass and GarrisonFelt God would end slavery peacefullyMinority, but efforts and violence helped change Northerners attitudes about slavery paved the way for Women’s rights
24Equal Rights for WomenWhy were women abolitionists is a strange position?Movement begins: Friendship b/w Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton1840-Anti-Slavery Convention in LondonWomen weren’t allowed to speak sat in the back behind a curtainCame from 2 different backgrounds:Mott: 47 y/o mother of 4, active reformerStanton: 25, newly married, never spoken in public, saw there were no laws protecting women from their husbands, attended 1st all women’s high schoolThe women agreed something needed to be done about the injustices suffered by women
25Unequal Treatment Could not speak in public Suffer taxation w/o representationRejected by medical schools and not given job opportunitiesTo overcome obstacles women had to work together Seneca Falls Convention8 years after Mott and Stanton metJuly 19, people including 40 men arrived at the convention (abolitionists, Quakers, other reformers, local housewives farmers, and factory workers)Modeled a proposal for women’s rights
26Declaration of Sentiments Modeled after the D. O. I “we hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created equal”Listed acts of tyranny of men over womenStanton’s presentation of the Declaration was her 1st speechDebate over voting rights convention corrected injustices and Stanton proposed that women DEMAND THE RIGHT TO VOTE!Received support form Frederick DouglassConvention voted to approve the resolution
27Legacy of Convention Created an organized campaign for women’s rights Sojourner Truth became a prominent figure in the movementSusan B Anthony became an advocate and gave memorable speeches (written by Stanton)NY gave women the right to control property and wages, MA passed liberal divorce lawsOne woman from the convention lived to vote for a president legally: Charlotte Woodward19th Amendment in 1920