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Mr. Morris World History.  Three-field system  Guild  Commercial revolution  Burgher  Vernacular  Thomas Aquinas  Scholastics.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Morris World History.  Three-field system  Guild  Commercial revolution  Burgher  Vernacular  Thomas Aquinas  Scholastics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Morris World History

2  Three-field system  Guild  Commercial revolution  Burgher  Vernacular  Thomas Aquinas  Scholastics

3  With the expansion of civilizations in Europe during the Middle Ages, increasing amounts of food were necessary  This was accomplished through a warmer climate which lasted from around 800-1200  Farmers were also able to farm lands that used to be too cold for crop production

4  Farmers originally used oxen to pull their plows  Cheaper to maintain than horses, but horses could plow three times as much per day  In order to use horses, farmers had to find a way to attach a plow to them  Around 900, a harness that fit across the horse’s chest was developed that made it possible for them to pull plows

5  Around 800, some villages started using three fields instead of two  Two were planted, one would remain empty  Allowed two thirds of lands to be used instead of half ▪ More land used = more food ▪ More food = more to eat ▪ Well-fed people = longer lives ▪ Longer lives = increasing population

6  In guilds, people who had the same job would work to improve conditions for themselves  Merchants controlled goods to keep prices high  Craft guilds – workers set standards for quality of work, wages, and working conditions  Also created plans for training new workers  Guilds became powerful players in government and economy ▪ New and better products available to people everywhere

7  Many last names that we have today come from the medieval period in Europe  They were used to describe the kind of work a person did ▪ Smith – silversmith ▪ Schumacher – shoemaker ▪ Carpenter, Zimmerman – carpenter ▪ Becker – baker

8  More goods to trade and new ways to do business changed life in Europe  Expansion of trade and business is known as the Commercial Revolution

9  On fair days, peasants would travel to towns, usually during religious holidays, with items to trade  Cloth was most common  Bacon, salt, honey, cheese, wine, and others also  Markets gave people their needs, manors that were self-sufficient weren’t necessary any more  More trade routes were opened up  People would buy things to try and turn a profit

10  Moving from fair to fair, they had to make a way to exchange money and carry less cash  Different types of currency for different places  Fixed problems through exchange rates and credit  For merchants to afford items they had to borrow money which gave rise to banking

11  Many changes brought about by the commercial revolution  More workers needed in cities ▪ Serfs became paid laborers and moved off manors  More money available ▪ More businesses  Merchants get more money ▪ King gets stronger through the taxes on that money

12  Towns grew during this period, but none were extremely large  European towns were small and unsophisticated  Paris was the largest city ▪ No more than 60,000 people in 1200  Most towns had 1,500 to 2,500 people

13  Trade became crucial for new towns  Built on rivers, ports, crossroads, and hilltops  Trade expanded and towns got bigger  Town life was not always nice  Narrow streets with animals and their waste  Human waste dumped out the window  No bathing and lack of fresh air, water, and light  Houses were a fire hazard  Many serfs ran away to cities and became free

14  To begin with, towns were under the authority of feudal lords  They would levy taxes, fees, and rents  With the expansion of trade, burghers organized and demanded more privileges ▪ Freedom from certain tolls and the right to govern towns ▪ If they weren’t given rights, they would fight to earn them

15  In the Crusades, Europeans came in contact with Muslims and Byzantines  Brought new interest in learning  Muslim and Byzantine libraries had literary works that had disappeared from Europe after the fall of Rome

16  1100s – Christian scholars began visiting Muslim libraries in Spain  Scholars translated Arabic versions of Greek writers into Latin  This allowed Europeans access to large amounts of knowledge ▪ Science, philosophy, law, math, and more  Crusaders brought back Muslim technology in ships weapons and navigation

17  The university arose in Europe  Made up of people, not buildings  Most students were children of the wealthy  Goal of students was government or Church jobs  Bachelor’s degree took 5-7 years  Masters took at least 12 years  People began writing in their everyday languages ▪ Books not written in Latin meant that regular people could read them

18  Christians wondered if someone could be a philosopher and still be faithful to the Bible  Thomas Aquinas argued that religious truths could be proven by logic ▪ Wrote the Summa Theologicae ▪ Combined ancient Greek and Christian ideas  Aquinas and other scholars who met at universities came to be known as scholastics ▪ Debated many issues including law and government

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