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Mr. Morris World History
Three-field system Guild Commercial revolution Burgher Vernacular Thomas Aquinas Scholastics
With the expansion of civilizations in Europe during the Middle Ages, increasing amounts of food were necessary This was accomplished through a warmer climate which lasted from around 800-1200 Farmers were also able to farm lands that used to be too cold for crop production
Farmers originally used oxen to pull their plows Cheaper to maintain than horses, but horses could plow three times as much per day In order to use horses, farmers had to find a way to attach a plow to them Around 900, a harness that fit across the horse’s chest was developed that made it possible for them to pull plows
Around 800, some villages started using three fields instead of two Two were planted, one would remain empty Allowed two thirds of lands to be used instead of half ▪ More land used = more food ▪ More food = more to eat ▪ Well-fed people = longer lives ▪ Longer lives = increasing population
In guilds, people who had the same job would work to improve conditions for themselves Merchants controlled goods to keep prices high Craft guilds – workers set standards for quality of work, wages, and working conditions Also created plans for training new workers Guilds became powerful players in government and economy ▪ New and better products available to people everywhere
Many last names that we have today come from the medieval period in Europe They were used to describe the kind of work a person did ▪ Smith – silversmith ▪ Schumacher – shoemaker ▪ Carpenter, Zimmerman – carpenter ▪ Becker – baker
More goods to trade and new ways to do business changed life in Europe Expansion of trade and business is known as the Commercial Revolution
On fair days, peasants would travel to towns, usually during religious holidays, with items to trade Cloth was most common Bacon, salt, honey, cheese, wine, and others also Markets gave people their needs, manors that were self-sufficient weren’t necessary any more More trade routes were opened up People would buy things to try and turn a profit
Moving from fair to fair, they had to make a way to exchange money and carry less cash Different types of currency for different places Fixed problems through exchange rates and credit For merchants to afford items they had to borrow money which gave rise to banking
Many changes brought about by the commercial revolution More workers needed in cities ▪ Serfs became paid laborers and moved off manors More money available ▪ More businesses Merchants get more money ▪ King gets stronger through the taxes on that money
Towns grew during this period, but none were extremely large European towns were small and unsophisticated Paris was the largest city ▪ No more than 60,000 people in 1200 Most towns had 1,500 to 2,500 people
Trade became crucial for new towns Built on rivers, ports, crossroads, and hilltops Trade expanded and towns got bigger Town life was not always nice Narrow streets with animals and their waste Human waste dumped out the window No bathing and lack of fresh air, water, and light Houses were a fire hazard Many serfs ran away to cities and became free
To begin with, towns were under the authority of feudal lords They would levy taxes, fees, and rents With the expansion of trade, burghers organized and demanded more privileges ▪ Freedom from certain tolls and the right to govern towns ▪ If they weren’t given rights, they would fight to earn them
In the Crusades, Europeans came in contact with Muslims and Byzantines Brought new interest in learning Muslim and Byzantine libraries had literary works that had disappeared from Europe after the fall of Rome
1100s – Christian scholars began visiting Muslim libraries in Spain Scholars translated Arabic versions of Greek writers into Latin This allowed Europeans access to large amounts of knowledge ▪ Science, philosophy, law, math, and more Crusaders brought back Muslim technology in ships weapons and navigation
The university arose in Europe Made up of people, not buildings Most students were children of the wealthy Goal of students was government or Church jobs Bachelor’s degree took 5-7 years Masters took at least 12 years People began writing in their everyday languages ▪ Books not written in Latin meant that regular people could read them
Christians wondered if someone could be a philosopher and still be faithful to the Bible Thomas Aquinas argued that religious truths could be proven by logic ▪ Wrote the Summa Theologicae ▪ Combined ancient Greek and Christian ideas Aquinas and other scholars who met at universities came to be known as scholastics ▪ Debated many issues including law and government
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