Presentation on theme: "Alcohol, Tobacco, and Caffeine: Daily Pleasures, Daily Challenges"— Presentation transcript:
1Alcohol, Tobacco, and Caffeine: Daily Pleasures, Daily Challenges
2Alcohol Overview 65% of Americans consume alcohol 10% are heavy drinkersAlcohol and college students70% of college students consumed alcohol in the last year1/2 are classified as heavy drinkersMany students have a misperception about “normal drinking” behavior, and believe their peers drink more than they actually do.
6Binge Drinking Dangerous to yourself and others Consuming a large quantity of alcohol in a short period of time increases the risk of unconsciousness, alcohol poisoning, and deathLinked to campus crime, including rape and assaultMany colleges and universities trying to address the problemImplementing policies against drinkingOffering more programs to help students with alcohol problems
7Chemical Make-Up of Alcohol Ethyl alcohol or ethanolFermentation processYeast organisms break down sugarDistillationAlcohol vapors are released from the mash at high temperaturesProofMeasure of the percent alcohol80 proof whiskey = 40% alcohol
8Alcoholic Beverages and Their Alcohol Equivalencies Figure 8.1
9Alcohol: Absorption and Metabolism Absorption in stomach 20%Absorption in small intestine 80%Factors that influence absorptionConcentration of the drinkAmount consumedFood in the stomachMoodPylorospasm (spasm of valve)
10Alcohol Absorption Wine and beer Absorbed more slowly than distilled beveragesCarbonated alcoholic beverages (champagne and sparkling wines)Absorbed more quickly than non-carbonatedCarbonated beverages (soda and seltzer) and drinks with mixersRelax the pyloric valve and empty stomach contents into intestinesIncreases rate of alcohol absorptionThe more alcohol you consume, the longer absorption takes
11ABC News: Alcohol Discussion Questions PlayVideo| AlcoholDiscussion QuestionsHow did each of the three men differ when considering body size, past alcohol drinking patterns, food intake on the day of the competition and during the drinking bout, performance on the roadside sobriety test, and eventual blood alcohol content?What was each man’s perception or judgment of how drunk he was at the end of the drinking competition?Discuss situations when you have been drinking and thought that you were in control but may have had a high blood alcohol content. Can you safely trust your own judgment?
12Blood Alcohol Levels Breathalyzers and urinalysis Both measure a person’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC)Ratio of alcohol to total blood volume
14Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Alcohol Alcohol and injuries13% of ER visits by undergrads are for alcohol-related injuriesPatients with a BAC >0.08 are 3.2 times more likely to have a violent injury than an unintentional injuryMost people admitted to ER are men 21 and over, most as a result of accidents or fights in which alcohol was a factor
15Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Alcohol Alcohol poisoningConsuming large amounts of alcohol in short period of time can be lethalAlcohol alone or mixed with another drug responsible for more deaths due to toxic overdose than any other substanceDeath caused by either central nervous system and respiratory depression or by inhalation of vomit or fluid into the lungsSigns include inibility to be roused, weak and rapid pulse, unusual breathing pattern, and cool, damp, pale or bluish skinIf wait to call for help until person is unconscious, risk of death increases tenfold
16Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Alcohol Decision making skills impairedAlcohol lowers inhibitions, impairing ability to make wise decisions regarding sexual activity70% of college students admit to having engaged in sexual activity primarily as a result of being under influence of alcoholLess likely to use safer sex practicesRisk of contracting STI or unplanned pregnancy increases among those who drink heavily
17Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Alcohol Alcohol affects men and women differentlyWomen have less body fatWomen have half as much alcohol dehydrogenase – enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the stomachMore vulnerable to impairment due to alcohol consumptionHormonal differences and use of oral contraceptives likely to contribute to longer periods of initoxication
18Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Alcohol Immediate effects of alcoholReduces frequency of nerve transmissionsDehydrationWater is lost from cerebrospinal fluidAlcohol irritates the gastrointestinal systemHangoversCongeners – forms of alcohol metabolized more slowlyBe informed of drug and alcohol interactionsWhat are some symptoms experienced by someone with a hangover?
19Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Alcohol Long-term effects of alcoholEffects on the Nervous SystemCardiovascular EffectsLiver diseaseCirrhosisAlcoholic hepatitisCancerChronic inflammation of pancreasImpairs ability to recognize and fight bacteria and viruses
21Alcohol and Pregnancy Risks Alcohol can harm fetal development Even a single exposure to high levels can cause damageFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)Mental retardation, small head, tremors, and abnormalities of face, limbs, heart, and brainFAS is the 3rd most common birth defect in the United States
22Alcohol and Pregnancy FAS behaviors include Impaired learning Poor memoryImpulsive behaviorsReduced attention spanPoor problem solvingSome have Fetal Alcohol Effects (less severe)
23Drinking and Driving Facts 39% of all traffic fatalities are alcohol relatedMany college students drink and driveIn 2005, 16,885 alcohol related fatalities (ARTFs)One ARTF every 30 minutesAt BAC 0.10, ten times more likely to be in an accidentCurrent limit for BAC in all 50 states: 0.08%
24Percentage of Fatally Injured Passenger Vehicle Drivers with BACs > Percentage of Fatally Injured Passenger Vehicle Drivers with BACs >.08 Percent, by Driver AgeFigure 8.2
25Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Identifying a problem drinkerAbuse interferes withWorkSchoolSocial/family relationshipsAlcoholism = alcohol dependencyTolerancePsychological dependenceWithdrawal
26Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism CausesBiological and family factorsSocial and cultural factorsFamily attitudesWeakening of family linksCombination of heredity and environment
27Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Effects of alcoholism on the family1 in 4 children live in an alcoholic situationDysfunctional familiesFamily rules: “Don’t talk, don’t trust, don’t feel.”Children often assume at least one of the following roles:Family heroScapegoatLost childMascotDo you know someone who fits the description of one of these roles?
28Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Costs to societyEstimated alcohol directly or indirectly responsible for over 25% of U.S. medical expenses and lost earningsCost of underage drinking estimated at $61.9 billion annuallyIncludes crashes, violent crime, FAS, high-risk sex, poisoning, psychosis, treatment for alcohol dependence
29Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Women and AlcoholismFemale alcoholics approaching the rate of male alcoholicsWomen get addicted fasterRisk factors include:Family historyPressure to drink from peersDepressionStressDespite the growing problem only 10% receive treatment
30Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Ethnic or racial differencesDifferent minority groups have own problems related to alcohol consumption and abuseAlcohol most widely used drug among Native American populationsRate of alcoholism two or three times higher than national average, death rate eight times higher than national averageGenerally African Americans drink less than white Americans, but more likely to be heavy drinkersLatino men have higher-than-average rates of alcohol abuse and alcohol-related health problemsAsian Americans have low rate of alcoholism, but many have defect in the gene that manufacturs alcohol dehydrogenase, leading to unpleasant side-effects when drinking
31Recovery The family’s role Intervention – planned confrontation Express love and concernTreatment programsPsychologist and psychiatrists specializing in treatmentAlcoholics Anonymous (AA)Private treatment centersFamily, individual and group therapy
32Recovery Relapse 60% rate of relapse in first 3 months Many say they are recovering their whole lifeTo be effective, must work on self esteem and personal growth
33Smoking in the United States Smoking factsSingle most preventable cause of death438,000 Americans die a year50 times that of illegal drug deathsTeen smokers = 27.5%AdvertisingSpends $18 million per dayChildren and teens constitute 90% of new smokersWomen, minorities and college students new targets
34ABC News: Tobacco Discussion Questions PlayVideo| TobaccoDiscussion QuestionsWhy do you think that the federal government heavily regulates nicotine replacement products but not the delivery of cigarettes?Why does Phillip Morris want to have the federal government regulate their tobacco products?
35Annual Deaths Attributable to Smoking in the United States Figure 8.3
36Smoking in the United States Financial costs to society$167 billion in annual health related economic losses$75.5 billion in medical expendituresCollege students are smoking lessEstimated 18% reported having smoked in the past 30 days (2005)Does tobacco appear to be a big problem on your campus?What efforts are made to decrease smoking?
37Tobacco and Its Effects Physiological effects of nicotineNicotine is the main addictive substance in tobaccoStimulates CNSStimulates adrenal glandsIncreases production of adrenalineIncreases heart rateIncreases respiratory rateConstricts vesselsIncreases blood pressure
38Tobacco and Its Effects All tobacco products are harmfulCigarettesClove cigarettesCigarsPipesBidis (hand-rolled, flavored cigarettes)Spit (smokeless) tobaccoChewing tobaccoDippingSnuff
39Health Hazards of Smoking CancersLung 85-90% associated with smokingPancreaticLipEsophagusTongueCardiovascular diseaseSmokers have 70% higher death rateStrokeSmokers are 2 times more likely to suffer
40Health Hazards of Smoking Respiratory disordersChronic bronchitisEmphysemaSexual dysfunctionMales are twice as likely to suffer impotenceOther problemsGum diseaseMore likely to need medicationsMetabolism of drugs is affected
41How Cigarette Smoking Damages the Lungs Figure 8.4
42Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Risks from ETSMainstreamSidestreamSidestream smoke causes more deaths a year than any other environmental pollutantChildren exposedHave you seen any anti-smoking public service announcements you thought were powerful?
44Tobacco Use and Prevention Politics Over 40 years since the government recognized the hazard46 states have suedStates have imposed extra taxesTobacco control initiatives are increasing
45Quitting Breaking the nicotine addiction 70% attempt to quit a year Fewer than 5% succeedMany programs exist to help with quittingNicotine withdrawal is experiencedNicotine replacement productsNicotine chewing gumNicotine patchNicotine nasal sprayNicotine inhaler
46Quitting Other means of breaking the habit Aversion therapy Operant strategiesSelf-controlBenefits of quittingAccording to the American Cancer Society many tissues will repair themselves
52Caffeine Addiction Drink more when coming down Caffeinism Jitters, muscle twitchWithdrawingMay produce headachesNo long-term damage is seen with moderate use in non-pregnant womenHave you noticed any of the signs of caffeine addiction in yourself or friends?
53Possible Health Concerns of Caffeine Use Links toHeart diseaseCancerMental dysfunctionBirth defectsNo evidence that caffeine causes long-term high blood pressure or strokes