James M. Eddy Texas A&M University The Health Effects of Smoking.
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James M. Eddy Texas A&M University The Health Effects of Smoking
Introduction Substance Abuse includes tobacco and alcohol as well as illicit drugs. Sidestream smoke (from end of cigarette) causes cancer and heart disease. Nicotine in tobacco and ethyl alcohol in alcohol are addictive drugs.
Why People Smoke Addiction to Nicotine Nicotine addiction: the state of being physically and emotionally dependent on nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms are experienced when trying to quit after being addicted. Tolerance: increased doses are needed to achieve desired effects. Dependence: when a person cannot live comfortably without a drug.
Why People Smoke Addiction to Nicotine Primary characteristics of tobacco, alcohol, and drug addiction: The individual displays a highly controlled or compulsive pattern of use. The individual experiences psychoactive or mood- altering effects from use. The individual finds that use leads to further use.
Why People Smoke Influence from Family, Peers, and Advertising Children of smoking parents are more likely to smoke than children of nonsmoking parents. Smoking teenagers are more likely to have friends who smoke than nonsmoking teenagers. Teenagers are twice as likely to be influenced by cigarette advertisements as by peer pressure.
The Components of Cigarette Smoke Nicotine Constricts blood vessels. When smokers inhale, 90% of the nicotine is absorbed in the bloodstream. Quick acting.
The Components of Cigarette Smoke Tar Tar is the gummy mixture left over from burning tobacco. Tar includes over 200 chemicals and is the most carcinogenic agent in cigarettes. Affect on the respiratory system.
The Components of Cigarette Smoke Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide is the most hazardous of the many gaseous compounds in cigarette smoke. Carbon monoxide is the same gas emitted from car exhaust. It causes smokers to get out of breath when exercising because it affects the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.
Why Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health Links to Cancer Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. After 20 years of not smoking, a former smoker’s risk of dying of lung cancer is almost equal to that of someone who has never smoked. Increases risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach and cervix
Why Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health Heart Disease and Stroke Increased blood pressure. Increased heart rate. 20% of all coronary heart disease deaths is attributable to smoking.
Why Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health Lung Damage Emphysema: a disease that results in the loss of surface area in the lung. Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes due to irritation, e.g. smoking.
Why Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health Complications During Pregnancy Smoking causes serious harm to a growing fetus. Carbon monoxide crossing the placenta slows fetal growth Slow growth increases risk of problems such as stillbirth, etc.
Why Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health Other Health Effects of Smoking Smoking is associated with increased upper respiratory infections, such as colds. Smoking contributes to allergy symptoms, such as coughing and sneezing. Smoking reduces the effects of medications. Smoking damages cells and tissues which delays healing. Smoking wrinkles the skin.
Noncigarette Exposure to Tobacco Passive Smoking Passive smoking: inhaling environmental tobacco smoke. Young children are especially affected by sidestream smoke. Environmental tobacco smoke.
Noncigarette Exposure to Tobacco Cigar and Pipe Smoking Greater risk for cancer of mouth, lip, and tongue than cigarette smokers Lower risk of lung cancer than cigarette smokers
Noncigarette Exposure to Tobacco Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or snuff) increases the risk of oral cancer. Leukoplakia is white patches on the oral mucosa that can become cancerous. Inter-individual differences.
Kicking the Habit: How to Stop Cessation Approaches Behavior modification: learning to change smoking behavior patterns. Smoking-cessation is another term for breaking a smoking habit. Nicotine replacement is getting nicotine through means other than tobacco. Nicotine gum Transdermal nicotine patch Nasal spray
The Changing Climate of Public Acceptance of Tobacco Use Smoking has been banned in many areas where people congregate, e.g. restaurants. Numerous lawsuits against tobacco companies by states and individuals It is against the law in all states to sell or distribute tobacco products to minors.