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World War I and Beyond 1914-1920 Chapter 10. Section 1: From Neutrality to War.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I and Beyond 1914-1920 Chapter 10. Section 1: From Neutrality to War."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I and Beyond Chapter 10

2 Section 1: From Neutrality to War

3 What Caused World War I: Nationalism and Competition Heighten Tension  Nationalism, militarism, imperialism, and entangling alliances combined with other factors to lead the nations of Europe into war  Alsace-Lorraine – French territory lost to a collection of German states

4 Militarism Produces an Arms Race  Militarism – glorification of the military, grew in the competing countries and fueled the arms race  The contest between Germany and Britain at sea and Germany, France and Russia on land guaranteed a major war  Militarism Produces an arms race and European leaders are sure a war would erupt in time.

5 Alliances Make Nations Overconfident and Reckless  Leaders prepared for war by forming alliances. Germany, Austria – Hungary, and Italy joined together in the Triple Alliance, though Italy never fought with it  Alliances emboldened leaders, they knew if they went to war their allies were obligated to fight along with them

6 Assassination Hurtles Europe Toward World War  Archduke Francis Ferdinand – heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary, was assassinated by Serbs who saw Ferdinand as a tyrant (video)

7 The Fighting Begins: Alliances Cause a Chain Reaction  Kaiser William II – German emperor, assured Austria Hungary Germany would stand by its ally if war came.  A-H declared war on Serbia July 28, 1914, because of their unwillingness to help in the investigation  Because of the alliance system, what should have been a localized quarrel spread

8 Deadly Technology Leads to Stalemate  Western Front – 450 miles of trenches that became the critical battle front.

9 The Reality of Trench Warfare  Stalemate in the trenches led to horrid conditions; lice from rats, “trench foot,” snipers, gas, and enemy attacks  Between the lines was “no man’s land”  Soldiers went “over the top” to launch an offensive and there were thousands, hundreds of thousands and millions of casualties  Casualties – soldiers killed, wounded, and missing

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11 Wilson Urges Neutrality  President Wilson urged Americans “to be impartial in thought as well as action,” as war spread across Europe  We tried to adhere to the “melting pot,” ideals  Many businesses benefited from the increased demand by warring nations for American goods

12 Americans Have Divided Loyalties  One third of Americans were foreign-born in 1914, many of them felt loyalty to their homelands  Most Americans sided with Britain and France, Britain because of cultural heritage and France because of their aid in the Revolution

13 American Opinion Crystallizes  German invasion of neutral Belgium swayed American opinion, fueled by British journalists and propagandists that showed and often exaggerated the brutality of the Germans

14 Neutrality Gives Way to War  1914 the start of World War I  1917 U.S. entry into World War I

15 Britain Blockades Germany  British leaders decided to use their navy to blockade Germany, and prevent most supplies from reaching Germany  Contraband – supplies captured from an enemy during wartime

16 German Sub marines Violate Neutral Rights  Germany began to blockade Britain, sinking Allied ships using its U-boats  On May 7, 1915 the British passenger liner Lusitania was sunk by a German U-boat, Wilson was stunned but still wanted peace “ There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right” (Sussex Pledge)

17 Wilson Prepares for War  By the end of 1915 Wilson began to prepare the Nation for War  The National Defense Act expanded the size of the army  Naval Construction Act ordered the building of more warships  Wilson ran for his second term on the slogan, “ He kept us out of war”

18 America Enters the War  Zimmerman Note – proposed an alliance with German and Mexico  April 2, 1917 Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany

19 Section 2: The Home Front

20 America Mobilizes for War  During World War I the U.S. government assumed new powers regulating industrial and agricultural production while also establishing a draft  The war was among nations but touched the lives of their citizens

21 Building and Army  When the U.S. entered into WWI the army was small compared to those of European Nations  Selective Service Act – Congress passed it May 1917 which authorized the draft  24 million registered and 2.8 million served

22 Constructing a War Economy  Bernard Baruch – head of the War Industries Board (WIB), an investment banker that reported directly to the president /who, what, where, when, cost/  Future President Herbert Hoover did the same for food production / wheatless Mondays and Wednesday, meatless Tuesdays, porkless Thursdays and Saturdays

23 Shaping Public Opinion  Committee on Public Information (CPI) - to educate the public about the causes and nature of the war  George Creel – director of the CPI, combined education and widespread advertising to “sell America”

24 Opposition and Its Consequences  German Americans and Irish Americans, tended to oppose the Allies for different reasons. Some people treated German Americans with prejudice, or intolerance. Some Americans opposed the war for many reasons and the government acted in ways that sometimes trespassed on individual liberties

25 Resistance to the Draft  The draft created controversy  Conscientious objectors – people whose moral or religious beliefs forbid them to fight in wars ( what if no one would fight?) (individual rights) (is freedom free?)

26 Women Work for Peace  Some American women also opposed the war.  Jane Addams formed the Women’s Peace Party  Jeannette Rankin was the first women to serve in he U.S. House of Representatives

27 The Government Cracks Down on Dissent  As in previous and future wars, the government navigated a difficult path between respecting and restring individual rights  Espionage Act – allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail

28 Cont.  1918 Congress passed the Sedition Act, which made it unlawful to use “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, and abusive language”  Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Sedition Act, stating there are times when the need for public order is so pressing that the First Amendment protections of speech do not apply

29 Prejudice Against German Americans  The CPI intensified the anti-German feelings by portraying Germany as a cruel enemy  Americans stopped teaching German in public schools and stopped playing Beethoven and Brahms, renamed German measles “liberty measles”  Some German Americans were harassed, beaten, and even a few were killed

30 The War Changes American Society  The war changed the lives for women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans

31 Women Embrace New Opportunities  As men entered the armed forces, many women moved into the workforce for the first time  Munitions factories  Railroads  Telegraph operators  Trolley conductors  Farms  Red Cross as drivers and clerks

32 African Americans Follow Opportunity North  W.E.B. Du Boies viewed the war as an excellent opportunity to show all Americans the loyalty and patriotism of African Americans  Great Migration – blacks left the south for economic advancement in the North’s wartime industries (Primary Source pg. 299)

33 Mexican Americans Move North  Many Mexican migrants crossed the border to harvest fruits or grains or pick cotton, they filled a demand for labor as blacks migrated north

34 Section 3: Wilson, War, and Peace

35 Why It Matters  By the spring of 1917 when the U.S. entered into WWI the Western Front in France had become a deadly, bloody stalemate. The U.S. would play a key role in the Allied victory.

36 America Gives the Allies the Edge  Many European leaders cast doubt the U.S. could raise, train, equip, and transport an army fast enough to influence the outcome of the war

37 Allied Convoys Protect Shipping  Germany U-boats were sinking merchant ships faster than they could be replaced  The problems solution came in the form of an old naval tactic called “convoy”  Convoy – groups of merchant ships sailed together protected by warships (pg. 303)

38 The Allies Struggle  Central Powers were gaining ground after years of fighting  In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Czar Nicholas II though they remained committed to the war  Radical communists led by Vladimir Lenin staged a revolution and gained control of Russia  The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended the war between the Soviet Union and Germany

39 American Troops Join the Fight  John J. Pershing – the commander of American forces in Europe  As weeks followed American troops began to assume more of the wars burden, at the same time German offensive began to stall

40 American Troops Distinguish Themselves  American troops called “doughboys”, began to break German lines  U.S. war hero Alvin York distinguish himself by silencing German machinegun nest, and dodged other attacks using only a pistol. He would later earn the Congressional Medal of Honor

41 The War Ends  By the end of 1918 the German front was collapsing, the armies of Germany and Austria- Hungary had had enough  On November 11 th 1918 Germany surrendered to the Allies  5 million Allied, 8 million Central Power, and 6.5 million civilians were dead

42 Wilson Promotes Peace Without Victory  Vladimir Lenin, leader of the communist revolution said the entire war was an imperialistic land-grab  President Wilson pushed the idea “peace without victory” (Primary Source pg. 305)  Fourteen Points – Wilson’s outline for what America wants, peace by noble ideals, not greed and vengeance

43 Cont…  Wilson’s Fourteen Points sought to fundamentally change the world, openness, independence, and freedom  No secrets, diplomacy, free trade, open seas  Self –Determination – the right of people to choose their own form of government

44 Cont…  League of Nations – to secure “mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike  1919 Allied peace conference in Versailles, Wilson went, something no other U.S. President had done

45 Cont…  Henry Cabot Lodge – a Republican foreign policy expert was left behind because Wilson disliked him  Many in American politics were angered but Wilson was greeted in Europe with much fanfare

46 Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference  Wilson’s idealism did not inspire other Allied leaders  They blamed Germany for starting the war and wanted to weaken them so to never have the ability to start another war  Reparations – payment for war damages

47 Allied Leaders Reject Wilson’s Ideas  The leaders of both France and Britain wanted Germany to pay for the war not only through reparations but also with the return of Alsace Lorraine and other key German colonies

48 Allies Create a League of Nations  Leaders of Italy, France and Britain began to scrap many aspects of Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan, freedom of the seas, free trade, and liberation of colonial empires, and general disarmament  Wilson lost many ideas but continued to fight for the League of Nations were countries could gather and peacefully resolve their quarrels

49 Problems With the Peace  The various peace treaties crated almost as many problems as they solved (read pg. 307)

50 America Rejects the Treaty  Wilson left Versailles knowing the treaty was not perfect but believed over time the League of Nations could fix the problems and peace would emerge

51 Wilson Faces Troubles at Home  German Americans thought the “war guilt clause” saying Germany started the war was to harsh  Irish Americans criticized the failure to create an independent Ireland  Some senators though the U.S. should not get entangled in world politics / organizations they were called “irreconcilables”

52 Cont…  Reservationists – opposed the treaty some Senators wanted minor changes while others wanted many  Article 10 – war without Congress / unconstitutional  Unable to sway Congress Wilson went to the people working himself to the brink of death

53 The Senate Rejects the Versailles Treaty  The treaty was voted on three times and three times it was defeated  The tragedy was that without full American support the League of Nations would be ineffective


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