Presentation on theme: "The Great War and Its Aftermath (1914-1930) The learner will analyze U.S. involvement in World War I and the war’s influence on international affairs."— Presentation transcript:
The Great War and Its Aftermath (1914-1930) The learner will analyze U.S. involvement in World War I and the war’s influence on international affairs
From Neutrality to War Causes of WWI Militarism Major powers were competing in an arms race, Britain and Germany had the biggest race. This made nations eager to use military force. Alliances Europe was made up of a system of alliances. Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia) Imperialism European powers competed for land in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Nationalism Aggressive nationalism caused tension across Europe. France was still bitter about being defeated by Germany in 1871 and losing the territory Alsace-Lorraine.
From Neutrality to War President Wilson urges neutrality Divided American loyalties Isolationists- believed war in Europe was not U.S.’s business. Interventionists- believed that war did affect American interests and that the U.S. should join the Allied powers. Internationalists- in the middle, believed that the U.S. should play an active role in world affairs and work toward achieving a just peace but not enter the war.
From Neutrality to War Neutrality gives way to war 3 reasons: 1.Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- Germany began attacking Allied ships by using U-boats. 2.Sinking of the Lusitania- The Germans sunk a large ocean liner, killing American citizens. 3.Zimmerman note- the British intercepted a message from Arthur Zimmerman, the German foreign minister, to his ambassador in Mexico. Zimmerman asked for Mexico to ally with the central powers and promised that in return Germany would help Mexico conquer territories lost to the U.S.
The Home Front America Mobilizes The U.S. was only a fraction of the size of European armies. President Wilson encouraged americans to volunteer. The Selective Service Act was passed by congress in May 1917, authorizing a draft of young men for military service. 24 million registered throughout the course of the war 2.8 million were drafted Total number of enlisted 4.8 million, 4 million helped the allied power in France.
The Home Front War Industries Board (WIB) Headed by Bernard M. Baruch Determined what products industries made, where products went, and much they would cost. Free enterprise was stopped in order to effecivly supply the need for war materials. Americans realized that they had to work together in order to beat the central powers. Food Administration Herbert Hoover set high prices for wheat to encourage wheat farmers to produce more. Encouraged Americans to conserve food Wheatless Mondays and Wednesdays, meatless Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.
The Home Front Committee of Public Information (CPI) Educated the public about causes and nature of the war. Director was George Creel 75 million pamphlets 6,000 press releases Millions of propaganda posters
The Home Front Opposition and Consequences German Americans and Irish Americans tended to oppose the Allied powers. Some people were prejudice towards German Americans Resistance to the Draft 12% of men that received draft notices, did not respond. Conscientious objectors, people whose moral or religious beliefs forbid them to fight in wars.
The Home Front The Espionage Act, June 17, 1917 Allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail. Anyone found obstructing recruiters, aiding the enemy, or generally interfering with the war effort could be punished ($10,000 or up to 20 years in prison).
The Home Front Women embraced new opportunities Factories, railroads, telegraph operators, trolley conductors, etc. All jobs that previously were occupied by only men. Some joined the Red Cross, The American Women’s Hospital
The Home Front African Americans seek new opportunities Thousands of men either enlisted or were drafted. They fought in segregated units under white officers. The Great Migration was a movement to “the land of hope,” as many referred to the North at that time. 1910-1920, 1.2 million African Americans moved north 1.Hoped to escape the violence and racism in the south 2.Desired better jobs, economic advancement 3.Better life for their children Mexican Americans move north Many Mexicans faced violence and poverty, and they wanted better lives for themselves and their children. An increase in demands for food, and a decrease in American farmers created jobs for migrants. Some of the work was seasonal
Wilson, War, and Peace Russian Revolution Military defeats, hunger, and chaos arose within Russia. Communist leader,