Presentation on theme: "Bellwork: Using the codon charts in your notes, fill in the boxes below. **Remember to use mRNA when doing translation**"— Presentation transcript:
Bellwork: Using the codon charts in your notes, fill in the boxes below. **Remember to use mRNA when doing translation**
Science Fact of the Day: The world’s termites outweigh the world’s humans 10 to 1.
CO: I will identify and evaluate the effects of mutations in DNA. LO: I will write notes. I will read a paragraph and fill in the missing words. I will model DNA mutations.
Introduction with Blocks
Think about it: What happens if our DNA gets messed up?
The Amazing Spiderman
Cells sometimes make mistakes when copying their own DNA. These mistakes are called mutations. Mutations are changes in the genetic material. NOTE: mutations can also be caused by environmental factors like radiation
Point Mutations: gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides - Three types of point mutations are substitutions, insertions, and deletions.
Types of Mutations
Genetic Mutations: Your Name 1.Copy the chart below. 2.Write your name in the first box. 3.Put a box around each codon. 4.Fill in the rest of the start by doing the mutation. 5.Put a box around each codon after the mutation. Name:T I F F A N Y J O N E S Insertion (add a base into the sequence) T I F F A N Y Z J O N E S Deletion (take a base away) Substitution (take out a base and put a different one in its place
Frameshift Mutation: a nucleotide is added or deleted - the bases are still read in groups of three - those groupings are shifted for every codon that follows.
Think-pair-share Would a frame shift mutation or a point mutation cause a bigger effect in an organism? Why?
Do you know of any diseases caused by genetic mutations?
Sickle Cell Anemia These are the sickle-shaped blood cells of someone with sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is the result of a point mutation, a change in just one nucleotide in the gene for hemoglobin. This mutation causes the hemoglobin in red blood cells to distort to a sickle shape when deoxygenated. The sickle- shaped blood cells clog in the capillaries, cutting off circulation. Having two copies of the mutated genes cause sickle cell anemia, but having just one copy does not, and can actually protect against malaria - an example of how mutations are sometimes beneficial.
Color Blindness Most forms are caused by a point mutation on the X chromosome. What number do you see? A color blind person won’t see anything. A color deficient person may see the number 35
Achondroplasia This is the most common form of dwarfism. It is caused by a substitution mutation for the gene that codes for bone growth.