Presentation on theme: "Bellwork: Using the codon charts in your notes, fill in the boxes below. **Remember to use mRNA when doing translation**"— Presentation transcript:
1Bellwork: Using the codon charts in your notes, fill in the boxes below. **Remember to use mRNA when doing translation**
2Science Fact of the Day: The world’s termites outweigh the world’s humans 10 to 1.
3CO: I will identify and evaluate the effects of mutations in DNA CO: I will identify and evaluate the effects of mutations in DNA. LO: I will write notes. I will read a paragraph and fill in the missing words. I will model DNA mutations.
7Cells sometimes make mistakes when copying their own DNA Cells sometimes make mistakes when copying their own DNA. These mistakes are called mutations. Mutations are changes in the genetic material.NOTE: mutations can also be caused by environmental factors like radiation
8Point Mutations: gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides - Three types of point mutations are substitutions, insertions, and deletions.
10Genetic Mutations: Your Name Copy the chart below.Write your name in the first box.Put a box around each codon.Fill in the rest of the start by doing the mutation.Put a box around each codon after the mutation.Name:T I F F A N Y J O N E SInsertion (add a base into the sequence)T I F F A N Y Z J O N E SDeletion (take a base away)Substitution (take out a base and put a different one in its place
11Frameshift Mutation: a nucleotide is added or deleted Frameshift Mutation: a nucleotide is added or deleted - the bases are still read in groups of three - those groupings are shifted for every codon that follows.
12Think-pair-shareWould a frame shift mutation or a point mutation cause a bigger effect in an organism? Why?
14Do you know of any diseases caused by genetic mutations?
15Sickle Cell AnemiaThese are the sickle-shaped blood cells of someone with sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is the result of a point mutation, a change in just one nucleotide in the gene for hemoglobin. This mutation causes the hemoglobin in red blood cells to distort to a sickle shape when deoxygenated. The sickle-shaped blood cells clog in the capillaries, cutting off circulation. Having two copies of the mutated genes cause sickle cell anemia, but having just one copy does not, and can actually protect against malaria - an example of how mutations are sometimes beneficial.
16Color BlindnessMost forms are caused by a point mutation on the X chromosome.What number do you see? A color blind person won’t see anything. A color deficient person may see the number 35
17AchondroplasiaThis is the most common form of dwarfism. It is caused by a substitution mutation for the gene that codes for bone growth.