Presentation on theme: "Mutations Learning Targets: Describe different gene mutations."— Presentation transcript:
Mutations Learning Targets: Describe different gene mutations.
Overview Cells occasionally make mistakes in copying their own DNA, by inserting the wrong base or skipping a base all together. Mutations - Changes in the genetic material
Kinds of Mutations Gene Mutations – Mutations that produce changes in a single gene. Chromosomal Mutations – Produce changes in whole chromosomes.
Gene Mutations Point Mutation – Gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides. – Include substitutions (one base changed to another) – Include insertions and deletions (base inserted or removed from the DNA sequence) Frameshift Mutation – Gene mutations that shift the “reading frame” of a genetic message.
Chromosomal Mutations Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. – May change the locations of genes on chromosomes or the number of copies of some genes Four types: – Deletion – Involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome. – Duplication – Produces extra copies of chromosome parts. – Inversion – reverse the direction of parts of a chromosomes. – Translocation – part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.