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Chapter 13.3 (Pgs. 372-376): Mutations. Mutations -Are heritable changes in genetic information -Have two major types: -Chromosomal mutations -Point mutations.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13.3 (Pgs. 372-376): Mutations. Mutations -Are heritable changes in genetic information -Have two major types: -Chromosomal mutations -Point mutations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13.3 (Pgs ): Mutations

2 Mutations -Are heritable changes in genetic information -Have two major types: -Chromosomal mutations -Point mutations -Can be harmful or beneficial

3 Chromosomal Mutations -Involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes -Deletion -Loss of all or part of a chromosome -Duplication -Produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome -Inversion -Reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome -Translocation -Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome

4 Point Mutations -Are mutations that involve changes in one or more nucleotides -Occur at a single point in the DNA sequence -Can cause changes to occur further along the DNA molecule from the initial mutation

5 Point Mutations -Substitution -One nucleotide is changed to a different nucleotide Sickle Cell Anemia

6 Point Mutations -Insertion or Deletion -One nucleotide is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence Huntington’s Disease Muscular Dystrophy

7 Point Mutations -Frameshift -Mutations that change the “reading frame” of DNA -Change the sequence of DNA from the initial point of mutation

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10 Causes of Mutations -Include naturally-occuring errors -Can occur during replication -Include chemical and physical agents in the environment, called mutagens -Chemicals -Radiation

11 Effects of Mutations -Can be harmful -Change protein structure or gene activity in a negative way -Sickle cell anemia -Can be helpful -Change protein structure or gene activity in a positive way -Increase disease resistance -Create better physiological function -Some mutations have no effect at all


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