Presentation on theme: "-(6 th Period)Have out your Notecard Sticker Sheet. Lay out your notecards (definition side up) on your desk 6x5 “Allele” needs to be top left card. -For."— Presentation transcript:
-(6 th Period)Have out your Notecard Sticker Sheet. Lay out your notecards (definition side up) on your desk 6x5 “Allele” needs to be top left card. -For Today “sketch” this karyotype and explain what gender this person is. HAPPY THURSDAY
Unit 4 – Cell Cycle Definitions Due Friday (11/6/15) All Parts Due Friday (11/13/15) Period 6 – All Parts Due Thursday (11/12/15) 1.Allele 2.Anaphase 3.Cancer 4.Cell Cycle 5.Centriole 6.Centromere 7.Chromatid 8.Chromosome 9.Crossing Over 10.Cytokinesis 11.Daughter Cell 12.Diploid 13.Electrophoresis 14.Frameshift Mutation 15.Gamete 16.Gene 17.Genetic Disorder 18.Genome 19.Haploid 20.Interphase 21.Karyotype 22.Meiosis 23.Metaphase 24.Mitosis 25.Mutation 26.Offspring 27.Point Mutation 28.Prophase 29.Sexual Reproduction 30.Somatic 31.Telophase 32.Tumor Pg 54
Page 65 – Mutations Coloring Essential Question What is a mistake in the genetic sequence?
Collect Today Page 63 – Build a Karyotype Notecard ALL PARTS - Period 6 Assigned Page 65 – Mutations Coloring (TOMORROW) Notecard ALL PARTS - Periods 1-5 (TOMORROW) Cell Cycle/Vocabulary Make-Up Quiz (Friday) Most Missed Quiz Make-Up (Friday) IBB Quiz (Next Week) Late Notecard Sticker Sheet (-30 points) Page 61 - Mitosis vs Meiosis (-50%) Page 62 – Mitosis Meiosis Summary Modeling (-50%)
Essential Question What is a mistake in the genetic sequence? Standard B.6H – Describe how techniques such as DNA fingerprinting, genetic modifications, and chromosomal analysis are used to study the genomes of organisms Pg 64
Think about it: What happens if our DNA gets messed up?
Cells sometimes make mistakes when copying their own DNA. These mistakes are called mutations. Mutations are changes in the genetic material.
Mutations that produce changes in a single gene are known as gene mutations. Mutations that produce changes in whole chromosomes are known as chromosomal mutations.
If a nucleotide is added or deleted, the bases are still read in groups of three, but now those groupings are shifted for every codon that follows. This is known as a frameshift mutation.
Gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides are known as point mutations. The three types of point mutations are substitutions, insertions, and deletions.
A small change in the DNA of a single gene affects the structure of a protein, causing a serious genetic disorder. (i.e. Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease)
Mutations that cause dramatic changes in protein structure are often harmful because the defective proteins disrupt normal life activities for the individual.
Genetic Mutations: Your Name 1.Copy the chart below. 2.Write your name in the first box. 3.Put a box around each codon. Name:E N R I Q U EGA R Z A Insertion (add a base to the end into the sequence) E N R I Q U EGA R Z A K Deletion (take a base away) Insertion(add a base)
Name: (Original Strand) E N R I Q U EGA R Z A Insertion (add a base to the end into the sequence) E N R I Q U EGA RZA K Deletion (take a base away) ENR IUE GAR ZA Q Substitution (replace a base) JNR IQU EGA RZA Point Mutation Frameshift Mutation ENR IQU EGA RZA
Think-Pair-Share Which would more likely have a bigger effect on an organism, a point mutation or frameshift mutation? Why?
Sickle Cell Anemia These are the sickle-shaped blood cells of someone with sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is the result of a point mutation, a change in just one nucleotide in the gene for hemoglobin. This mutation causes the hemoglobin in red blood cells to distort to a sickle shape when deoxygenated. The sickle- shaped blood cells clog in the capillaries, cutting off circulation. Having two copies of the mutated genes cause sickle cell anemia, but having just one copy does not, and can actually protect against malaria - an example of how mutations are sometimes beneficial.
Color Blindness Most forms are caused by a point mutation on the X chromosome. What number do you see? A color blind person won’t see anything. A color deficient person may see the number 35
Achondroplasia This is the most common form of dwarfism. It is caused by a substitution mutation for the gene that codes for bone growth.
Genes located close together on the same chromosomes are linked, meaning that they tend to be inherited together. Genes located on the sex chromosomes are said to be sex-linked genes. The X chromosome contains more information than the Y chromosome.
The 4 kinds of chromosomal mutations are: deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. Deletion Inversion Duplication Translocation