Presentation on theme: "DNA MUTATIONS & GENETICS LEWIS BIOLOGY 2013. CONCEPTS COVERED THIS UNIT Mutations (Point and Frame-shift) Diseases caused by Mutations Sickle Cell Anemia."— Presentation transcript:
DNA MUTATIONS & GENETICS LEWIS BIOLOGY 2013
CONCEPTS COVERED THIS UNIT Mutations (Point and Frame-shift) Diseases caused by Mutations Sickle Cell Anemia and Point Mutations Genetics and Heredity Gregor Mendel and the Pea Plants Monohybrid Crossing Alleles Mendelian Genetics Non-Mendelian Genetics Dominance vs. Recessive Co-Dominance Incomplete Dominance Multiple Alleles & Blood Typing Sex-Linked Traits Pedigree Analysis Chapters 10 & are a good resource to use for this unit! Please read ahead
TERMS YOU WILL ENCOUNTER THIS UNIT (AT SOME POINT YOU WILL NEED THIS VOCABULARY IN YOUR NOTES) Heredity Trait Genetics Gamete Fertilization Zygote Pollination Hybrid Allele Dominant Recessive Phenotype Genotype Homozygous Heterozygous Crossing over Diploid Haploid Egg Homologous chromosomes Meiosis Nondisjunction Sperm Sexual reproduction Carrier Fetus pedigree Co-dominance Incomplete dominance Multiple allele Polygenic inheritance Sex chromosome Sex linked trait Karyotype
DISEASES COVERED THIS UNIT Please research and read ahead about the following genetic disorders: Kleinfelter’s Disease Turner’s Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Sickle Cell Anemia Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)
THE EXAM FOR THIS UNIT The exam for this unit will be held between October st. This will be considered your Midterm Examination. Most of the material will cover: DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis and Genetics—although older material will be on the exam. The midterm will be weighed twice (as two test grades) Please study ahead of time as it is comprehensive and cumulative. As a resource, utilize Chapters 10 & 12 in the Blue Glencoe Textbook
DNA MUTATIONS There are two general types of mutations Point and Frame-Shift Mutagen: something that causes a mutation Point Mutations: a genetic mutation in which only one of the nitrogenous bases is substituted (changed) to another). Only one amino acid is changed Frame-shift Mutations: a genetic mutation in which one of the bases is added or deleted. This causes the rest of the DNA sequence to shift, changing the ENTIRE DNA/AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. THIS IS THE MOST DANGEROUS MUTATION
EXAMPLES OF POINT MUTATION Sickle cell anemia is caused by a point mutation. A single base is changed, causing the disease to occur (FYI, those who have sickle cell are resistant to Malaria) Normal Hemoglobin (blood)GGG-CTT-CTT-TTT Sickled Hemoglobin (blood)GGG-CAT-CTT-TTT Only one(1) of the amino acids will change
EXAMPLES OF FRAME-SHIFT MUTATIONS One of the bases in a DNA sequence is either inserted or deleted, therefore causing the entire sequence to shift. This will change the entire DNA sequence, thusly changing the entire AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. THIS CAN BE LETHAL NORMAL SEQUENCE: ATC – GAT – TTA – AAG THE A WILL BE DELETED, AND THE REST OF THE BASES WILL SHIFT TO FILL ITS PLACE MUTATED SEQUENCE: ATC – GTT – TAA –AG…..
ASSIGNMENT #1: MUTATIONS WORKSHEET Complete the mutations worksheet on my website. This is to be completed on your own paper. The answers will be discussed on today’s meet (please remember guidelines for appropriate commentary) Lets not allow for immaturity to ruin the privileges of those who follow rules.www.todaysmeet.com Be sure to read the section on your worksheet about Sickle Cell Anemia.
GENETICS & HEREDITY CHAPTERS 10 &12
FATHER OF GENETICS Gregor Mendel is the father of genetics (hence the term Mendelian Genetics). Mendel was an Austrian monk studied heredity (how traits are passed from parent to offspring) He was the first to be able to predict the outcome of one’s traits. This led to the field of genetics (branch of biology that studies heredity) He studied heredity using garden pea plants using the sex organs (yes, plants reproduce sexually..)
THE BIRDS & THE BEES…WELL JUST THE PLANTS IN PLANT FERTILIZATION, THE MALE GAMETE UNITES WITH THE FEMALE GAMETE. THIS RESULTS IN A ZYGOTE ZYGOTE
TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS Monohybrid cross: aka the ‘Punnett Square’, used to predict the traits of offspring P 1 : Parent generation (mom & dad) F 1, F 2,..: Filial generations (the offspring, grandchildren etc.) Homozygous Dominant: AA Homozygous recessive: aa (this is the ONLY time recessive traits are shown) Heterozygous: Aa (the dominant trait is still expressed) Dominant: trait that is shown or expressed Recessive: trait that is hidden or disappears in the mating Alleles: forms of a gene
…MORE TERMS Phenotype= the Physical appearance (color, size, shape, etc.) Genotype = the gene or allele (Aa, AA, aa) Example: 75% of the Offspring were Heterozygous Aa (genotype), meaning, they have Yellow eyes (phenotype) 25% of the offspring were Homozygous recessive aa (genotype), meaning they have white eyes (phenotype) Joke: You’ve got some good jeans! Haha… Get it??
BASICS OF THE PUNNETT SQUARE: TRY THIS EXAMPLE Alleles: Brown eyes: BB, Bb Blue Eyes: bb Problem: Mom has blue eyes, and Dad is Heterozygous for Brown eyes. Complete the Punnett Square and give the phenotype and genotype of the offspring A a a a
BASICS OF THE PUNNETT SQUARE: ANSWER Aaaa Aaaa Alleles: Brown eyes: BB, Bb Blue Eyes: bb Problem: Mom has blue eyes, and Dad is Heterozygous for Brown eyes. Complete the Punnett Square and give the phenotype and genotype of the offspring A a a a Answer: Phenotype: 50% will have brown eyes 50% will have blue eyes Genotype: 50% Aa (heterozygous) 50% (homozygous recessive)
ASSIGNMENT #2 Complete the Monohybrid Cross worksheet on my website. The worksheet has been upload, you may write your answers on your own paper OR print it at home! Do not forget the rules of Mendelian Genetics!!! If there is a capital letter (A, B, C…), this means the gene is dominant, and will mask (cover) the recessive gene (a, b, c)
MEIOSIS …NOT SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
REMEMBER… We covered Meiosis when we talked about Mitosis. Meiosis is a cell division of gametes… In other words--- it’s how guys make sperm, and ladies make eggs (ladies, you’re born with the eggs you have ) Guys continue Meiosis until they’re old…yuck Meiosis is NOT SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
MEIOSIS In Meiosis, it’s a way of taking a person’s 46 chromosomes, and dividing them in half—so that parents only pass 23 chromosomes onto their offspring. You’re the perfect blending of both of your parents. 46 chromosomes in dad’s sperm / 2 (meiosis) = 23 chromosomes 46 chromosomes in mom’s eggs / 2 (meiosis) = 23 chromosomes 23 chromosomes + 23 chromosomes = YOU
REVIEW: MITOSIS VS. MEIOSIS MitosisMeiosis Number of Divisions12 (Meiosis I & Meiosis II) Number of daughter cells24 PurposeMaking new body cells (liver, hair, skin, etc.) “somatic cells” Making new sex cells “gametes” (sperm & eggs) Chromosome #Diploid (2n)Haploid (n) -half
EVENTS IN MEIOSIS Crossing Over: Occurs in Prophase I, where the chromosomes break, and exchange genetic material Nondisjunction: where the chromosomes fail to separate during Meiosis, this causes Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) Crossing over