2 Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics Mendel began to breed garden pea plants so that he could study the inheritance of their characteristicsGenetics – the branch of biology that studies heredityHeredity – the passing of characteristics from parents to offspringTraits – Characteristics that are inherited
3 Gregor Mendel’s experiments Mendel studied pea plants because they reproduce sexually.Plants contain both male and female sex cells.Sex cells are called gametes.The male gamete is in the pollen grain.The female gamete is located in the pistil.The transfer of the male pollen grains to the pistil of a flower is called pollination.The joining of both male and female gametes is called fertilization.
4 Mendel’s monohybrid cross “Mono” means one. Hybrid refers to the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait.Monohybrid Crosses are made of two parents that differ only by a single trait.All of the characteristics he studied had only two forms, so all plants had either one form or the other: Either-or
5 The rule of unit factors Mendel concluded that each organism has two factors that control each of its traits.These factors are genes and are located in chromosomes.Genes exist in alternative forms called alleles.Alleles are inherited from parents.
6 The rule of dominance Mendel called the observed trait dominant. Dominant traits are represented with capital letters.The trait that disappeared or was “masked” is called recessive.Recessive traits are represented with lower case letters.
7 The law of segregationOrganisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from the female parent and one from the male parent.Only one copy of a gene goes into an organism’s gametes.Meaning, the two copies of a gene separate – or segregate – during gamete formation.
8 Key terms Phenotype – is the way an organism looks and behaves Genotype – is the genetic makeup of an organismHomozygous – Two alleles for the trait are the sameHeterozygous – Two alleles for the trait are different
9 What is a monohybrid cross? Explain the Rule of Dominance. Who is Gregor Mendel?What is a monohybrid cross?Explain the Rule of Dominance.Explain the Rule of Segregation.Explain the Rule of Unit Factors.What are the differences between genotype and phenotype?Write the question and the answer.
10 Reginald punnettThe Punnett Square is a grid system for predicting the possible genotypes resulting from a cross.The outside edges, or axes, of the grid represent the possible genotype of gametes from each of the parents.The grid boxes show the possible genotypes of offspring from those two parents.
11 Monohybrid crossesCrosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait – for example, flower colorExample: Homozygous dominant crossed with homozygous recessive
12 Monohybrid crossesHeterozygous crossed with heterozygous
13 Monohybrid crossesHeterozygous crossed with homozygous recessive
14 Dihybrid crossDihybrid crosses are crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits, example flower color and flower heightExample: Heterozygous crossed with heterozygous
15 ProbabilityProbability is the likelihood, or chance, that a particular event will happen.It predicts the average number of times something will happen, not the exact number of times.number of ways a specific event can occurnumber of total possible outcomesProbability =