# Chapters 11 & 14.

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Chapters 11 & 14

1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?”
2. Why did he use pea plants?

1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits and they reproduced quickly

What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?
What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breeding parents with different traits? What are the offspring of two parents called?

Both alleles are either dominant or recessive AA or aa
All hybrid (Aa) offspring result F1 generation Aa

What results when the offspring (F1) of true breeding parents self-pollinate?

RR Rr Rr rr R r Rr x Rr R r Genotype Ratio: 1 RR: 2 Rr: 1 rr
Phenotype Ratio: 3 Round: 1 Wrinkled

What is probability? What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?

Probability: The chance of something happening!
½ or 50%

Why did we keep increasing the number of flips of our penny in the “Coin Toss” lab?

The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability). ½ heads, ½ tails

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?
½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/64

What is the “Principle of Independent Assortment?”

During gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.
Foil each parent to get 4 gametes G g Y y GY Gy gY gy

Be able to define: Complete Dominance Incomplete Dominance Co-Dominance

Complete Dominance The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype. Incomplete Dominance Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. BLENDING!!! Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers. Co-Dominance Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other. ABO blood types: A blood x B blood = AB blood

Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type:
Type A Type B Type AB Type O

AB has same genotype and phenotype
Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: AB has same genotype and phenotype

What are polygenic traits?

What are polygenic traits?
Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.

How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?
A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

First determine how many different letters are there for each letter type then multiply!
A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 = 32 gametes

Can this parent AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH
have a child with the following genotype? Why or why not? A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

Can this parent AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH
have a child with the following genotype? Why? NO, because the parent would need to have a big E in their genotype in order for the child to have 2 EE’s. A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

Female Male Know what forms from the sex cells in females and males!
4 Sperm are produced 1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced

Know the stages of Meiosis I & II
The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I I The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make Tetrads 4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis Haploid = one set of chromosomes

When does crossing over occur during Meiosis?
Why is this important?

During Prophase I Important for GENETIC DIVERSITY!!

X X X X X X X X Diploid Parent SsTt What are the four possible
combinations for the haploid cells?

l l l l X X T t S S ST S s St X X l l l l t T T s t s sT st

What is this picture called?
What 4 things are shown from this picture?

What is this called? Karyotype
Shows: Autosomes = all chromosomes # chromosome pairs (not sex chromosomes) Sex Chromosomes (XX= female or XY= male) # 23 pair Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits and pair up with each other Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males/females)

What is non-disjunction?

Non-disjunction –When chromosome pairs don’t separate properly during Meiosis I
Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)

What chromosomal disorder is this on the #21 pair?

Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
#21

What chromosomal disorder is this on the sex chromosome?
XXY

Kleinfelter’s Syndrome
XXY

What chromosomal disorder is this on the sex chromosome?
XO

Turner’s Syndrome XO

Who determines the sex of the offspring?
Mother or Father Why? What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?

determines sex of offspring
Father determines sex of offspring He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl 50% chance of Boy % chance of Girl

What is this picture called?
What do each of the shapes and shading combinations represent? How many generations are shown?

Normal Male Normal Female Female with Trait Carrier Female Male with Trait Carrier Male Line = Marriage Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next. 3 Generations

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Be able to describe the differences between: Meiosis and Mitosis Be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages between: Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Somatic Cells – all body cells
Mitosis Meiosis Somatic Cells – all body cells Sex Cells - gametes 2 cells are made 4 cells are made Diploid Haploid Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Advantages No mate needed for reproduction Very fast reproduction time Lots of organisms GENETIC DIVERSITY! Disadvantages All organisms are alike, No Genetic Diversity Need a mate for reproduction Slower reproduction time Fewer organisms

female carrier x male colorblind
Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits? XBXb x XbY female carrier x male colorblind ? XB Xb XBXb XbXb Y XBY XbY ? Phenotypes: 1 Female/Carrier 1 Female/Colorblind 1 Male/Normal 1 Male/Colorblind

female carrier x male colorblind Sex-linked traits only carried on X
Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits? Sex-linked gene/trait – Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness XBXb x XbY female carrier x male colorblind XB Xb XBXb XbXb Y XBY XbY Phenotypes: 1 Female/Carrier 1 Female/Colorblind 1 Male/Normal 1 Male/Colorblind Sex-linked traits only carried on X Y doesn’t carry traits

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:
Allele Gametes Genes Genetics Karyotype Pedigree Probability Punnett Square

Allele- Different forms of a gene
Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm) Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up - looking for sex and the presence of abnormal # of chromosomes Pedigree- Family tree (picture) shows passing of trait from one generation to the next generation Probability - Chance of something happening Punnett Square- Chart showing offspring’s trait probabilities

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:
Dominant Recessive Genotype Phenotype Heterozygous Homozygous Trait Homologous

Dominant – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait
Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism (letters) Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr) Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr) Trait – Inherited characteristic (feature) Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:
Co-dominance Incomplete dominance Diploid Haploid Independent Assortment Non-disjunction Segregation

Co-dominance – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY
Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate Segregation – Separation of alleles

Understand which is the P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.

Incomplete Dominance Cross
Know how to do the following types of crosses: Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross Incomplete Dominance Cross Sex-linked Cross Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring

Doing the different types of Punnett Squares!