2 1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?
3 1. Gregor Mendel2. To study the inheritance of traitsand they reproduced quickly
4 What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean? What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breeding parents with different traits?What are the offspring of two parents called?
5 Both alleles are either dominant or recessive AA or aa All hybrid (Aa) offspring resultF1 generation Aa
6 What results when the offspring (F1) of true breeding parents self-pollinate?
7 RR Rr Rr rr R r Rr x Rr R r Genotype Ratio: 1 RR: 2 Rr: 1 rr Phenotype Ratio: 3 Round: 1 Wrinkled
8 What is probability?What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?
9 Probability: The chance of something happening! ½ or 50%
10 Why did we keep increasing the number of flips of our penny in the “Coin Toss” lab?
11 The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability).½ heads, ½ tails
12 If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?
13 If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses? ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½= 1/64
14 What is the “Principle of Independent Assortment?”
15 During gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing the other. Foil each parentto get 4 gametesG g Y yGYGygYgy
16 Be able to define:Complete DominanceIncomplete DominanceCo-Dominance
17 Complete DominanceThe dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype.Incomplete DominanceNeither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. BLENDING!!!Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers.Co-DominanceBoth traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other.ABO blood types: A blood x B blood =AB blood
18 Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: Type AType BType ABType O
19 AB has same genotype and phenotype Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type:AB has same genotype and phenotype
21 What are polygenic traits? Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.
22 How many different gametes would you get from the following parent? A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h
23 First determine how many different letters are there for each letter type then multiply! A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 =32 gametes
24 Can this parent AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH have a child with the following genotype? Why or why not?A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h
25 Can this parent AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH have a child with the following genotype? Why?NO, because the parent would need to have a big E in their genotype in order for the child to have 2 EE’s.A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h
26 Female Male Know what forms from the sex cells in females and males! 4 Sperm are produced1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced
27 Know the stages of Meiosis I & II The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I IThe paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to makeTetrads4 genetically different cells result at the end of MeiosisHaploid = one set of chromosomes
28 When does crossing over occur during Meiosis? Why is this important?
29 During Prophase IImportantforGENETICDIVERSITY!!
30 X X X X X X X X Diploid Parent SsTt What are the four possible combinations for the haploidcells?
32 What is this picture called? What 4 things are shown from this picture?
33 What is this called? Karyotype Shows:Autosomes = all chromosomes # chromosome pairs (not sex chromosomes)Sex Chromosomes(XX= female or XY= male) # 23 pairHomologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits and pair up with each otherInherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males/females)
42 Who determines the sex of the offspring? Mother or FatherWhy?What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?
43 determines sex of offspring Fatherdetermines sex of offspringHe provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl50% chance of Boy % chance of Girl
44 What is this picture called? What do each of the shapes and shading combinations represent?How many generations are shown?
45 Normal MaleNormal FemaleFemale with TraitCarrier FemaleMale with TraitCarrier MaleLine = MarriagePedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next.3 Generations
46 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Be able to describe the differences between:Meiosis and MitosisBe able to describe the advantages and disadvantages between:Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
47 Somatic Cells – all body cells MitosisMeiosisSomatic Cells – all body cellsSex Cells - gametes2 cells are made4 cells are madeDiploidHaploidAsexual ReproductionSexual ReproductionAdvantagesNo mate needed for reproductionVery fast reproduction timeLots of organismsGENETIC DIVERSITY!DisadvantagesAll organisms are alike,No Genetic DiversityNeed a mate for reproductionSlower reproduction timeFewer organisms
48 female carrier x male colorblind Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?XBXb x XbYfemale carrier x male colorblind?XBXbXBXbXbXbYXBYXbY?Phenotypes:1 Female/Carrier1 Female/Colorblind1 Male/Normal1 Male/Colorblind
49 female carrier x male colorblind Sex-linked traits only carried on X Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?Sex-linked gene/trait – Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindnessXBXb x XbYfemale carrier x male colorblindXBXbXBXbXbXbYXBYXbYPhenotypes:1 Female/Carrier1 Female/Colorblind1 Male/Normal1 Male/ColorblindSex-linked traits only carried on XY doesn’t carry traits
50 Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: AlleleGametesGenesGeneticsKaryotypePedigreeProbabilityPunnett Square
51 Allele- Different forms of a gene Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm)Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traitsGenetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generationKaryotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up - looking for sex and the presence of abnormal # of chromosomesPedigree- Family tree (picture) shows passing of trait from one generation to the next generationProbability - Chance of something happeningPunnett Square- Chart showing offspring’s trait probabilities
52 Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: DominantRecessiveGenotypePhenotypeHeterozygousHomozygousTraitHomologous
53 Dominant – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) traitGenotype – Genetic makeup of organism (letters)Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looksHeterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr)Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr)Trait – Inherited characteristic (feature)Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes
54 Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: Co-dominanceIncomplete dominanceDiploidHaploidIndependent AssortmentNon-disjunctionSegregation
55 Co-dominance – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY Incomplete dominance – Blending of traitsDiploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomesHaploid – Having 1 set of chromosomesIndependent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritanceNon-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separateSegregation – Separation of alleles
56 Understand which is the P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.
57 Incomplete Dominance Cross Know how to do the following types of crosses:Monohybrid CrossDihybrid CrossIncomplete Dominance CrossSex-linked CrossMust show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring