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Genetic Counselor Austrian monk and scientist Identified principles of genetics by studying pea plants Picked peas because of 7 observable traits,

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Counselor Austrian monk and scientist Identified principles of genetics by studying pea plants Picked peas because of 7 observable traits,"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Genetic Counselor

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5 Austrian monk and scientist Identified principles of genetics by studying pea plants Picked peas because of 7 observable traits, traits appeared and disappeared, small and grow easily and can self pollinate. Austrian monk and scientist Identified principles of genetics by studying pea plants Picked peas because of 7 observable traits, traits appeared and disappeared, small and grow easily and can self pollinate.

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8 Many genes have different form ex. Tall or short pea plants Variants of a particular gene = Alleles Many genes have different form ex. Tall or short pea plants Variants of a particular gene = Alleles

9 the trait that masks the recessive trait. the trait that was not expressed in Mendels F1 generation.

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11 Meiosis produces haploid gametes (sex cells) Haploid means half of the genetic material to make a fertilized zygote (embryo) Diploid is a full double set of genes When gametes combine in fertilization, the number of chromosomes is restored (diploid). Meiosis produces haploid gametes (sex cells) Haploid means half of the genetic material to make a fertilized zygote (embryo) Diploid is a full double set of genes When gametes combine in fertilization, the number of chromosomes is restored (diploid).

12 Similar to mitosis but sexual reproduction Goes through same stages as mitosis but twice Forms specialized sex cells called gametes Two rounds of nuclear division 2 stages called meiosis I and meiosis II Similar to mitosis but sexual reproduction Goes through same stages as mitosis but twice Forms specialized sex cells called gametes Two rounds of nuclear division 2 stages called meiosis I and meiosis II

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23 Punnett Squares

24 What is a Punnett Square? a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype. Summary of every possible combination of one maternal allele with one paternal allele for each gene being studied a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype. Summary of every possible combination of one maternal allele with one paternal allele for each gene being studied

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27 Dihybrid Cross If 2 traits are coded for on different genes there will be 16 different possible outcomes

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29 Meiosis / Genetics Mini Quiz November 5 th, 2012

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31 5. Gregor __________________, the "father of genetics 6. The plants Mendel did his studies on: __________________ 7. The allele that is masked or covered up by the dominant allele: _______________________ 8. Square used to determine probability and results of cross: _______________________ 5. Gregor __________________, the "father of genetics 6. The plants Mendel did his studies on: __________________ 7. The allele that is masked or covered up by the dominant allele: _______________________ 8. Square used to determine probability and results of cross: _______________________

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33 Law of ____________- members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed.

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35 - both have different infoex. Pp both have same info ex. PP (purple) or pp (white) physical appearance Ex. Purple flower actual set of alleles PP or Pp or pp variants of a particular gene are referred to as ??

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37 Figure out mom and dad gametes and then fill out the punnett square

38 1.Anaphase 2.Metaphase 3.Telophase 4.Prophase 5.Mendell 6.Peas 7.Recessive 8.Punnett 9.Bb 10.Father 11.Segregation 12.Heredity 13.Genetics 14.Alleles 15.Homozygous 16.Heterozygous 17.Phenotype 18.Genotype 19. Punnett Square filled out 20.1:2: : Work through as class on slide

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40 Ex. Red flower (RR) X White flower (RR) Pink Flower (RR) Incomplete Dominance When the phenotype of the heterozygous individual is intermediate between the homozygous dominant and recessive individuals.

41 Codominance When both traits appear equally in the heterozygous individual Ex. Blood types When both traits appear equally in the heterozygous individual Ex. Blood types

42 50% Chance for male or female Sex Determination

43 Sex Linked Traits When Traits are located on the sex chromosomes (X and Y) More traits are on the X than Y When Traits are located on the sex chromosomes (X and Y) More traits are on the X than Y

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47 EX. Mrs. Carollos Family Eye Color Trait = Brown Eyes Female with trait Female without trait Male with trait Male without trait

48 1.organized profile of chromosomes in single cell 2.used to identify genetic disorders 1.organized profile of chromosomes in single cell 2.used to identify genetic disorders

49 1.Cell stained 2.Take picture through microscope just before cell division 3.Chromosomes are easiest to see at this point. 1.Cell stained 2.Take picture through microscope just before cell division 3.Chromosomes are easiest to see at this point.

50 Normal Female, 46, XX

51 Normal Male, 46 XY

52 Kleinfelters Syndrome, 47, XXY

53 Turners Syndrome, 45, XO

54 Downs Syndrome, 47, Trisomy 21

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