3 Branch of biology that studies heredity Biological inheritance -passing things on from one generation to the nextGENETIcSBranch of biology that studies heredity
4 Gregor Mendel Austrian monk and scientist Identified principles of genetics by studying pea plantsPicked peas because of 7 observable traits, traits appeared and disappeared, small and grow easily and can self pollinate.Gregor Mendel
6 Mendel’s Experimental Design Started with pure parents of varieties (ex. Purple or white flowers) – P generationCross pollinated parents to get F1 generationSelf pollinated the offspring – F2 generation – Every time got a 3:1 ratio of the 2 varieties.
7 Many genes have different form ex Many genes have different form ex. Tall or short pea plants Variants of a particular gene = AllelesAlleles
8 DOMINANT TRAIT Recessive Trait the trait that masks the recessive trait.Recessive Traitthe trait that was not expressed in Mendel’s F1 generation.
9 Meiosis and The Laws of Heredity Tuesday, October 30th
10 GametesMeiosis produces haploid gametes (sex cells) Haploid means half of the genetic material to make a fertilized zygote (embryo) Diploid is a full double set of genes When gametes combine in fertilization, the number of chromosomes is restored (diploid).
11 Meiosis Similar to mitosis but sexual reproduction Goes through same stages as mitosis but twiceForms specialized sex cells called gametesTwo rounds of nuclear division2 stages called meiosis I and meiosis II
23 What is a Punnett Square? a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype. Summary of every possible combination of one maternal allele with one paternal allele for each gene being studied
30 5. Gregor __________________, the "father of genetics“ 6 5. Gregor __________________, the "father of genetics“ 6. The plants Mendel did his studies on: __________________ 7. The allele that is masked or covered up by the dominant allele: _______________________ 8. Square used to determine probability and results of cross: _______________________
31 9. What are the possible genotypes? 10. Will the offspring resemble mother or father more? Why
32 LAWS OF HEREDITYLaw of ____________- members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed.11.
33 12. 13. ________ = Branch of biology that studies heredity _________ = Biological inheritance -passing things on from one generation to the next13.________ = Branch of biology that studies heredity
34 Phenotype Alleles Homozygous Heterozygous 14. 17. 15. 16. 18. GenotypeHomozygousHeterozygous14.variants of a particular gene are referred to as ??physical appearanceEx. Purple flower17.15.both have same infoex. PP (purple) or pp (white)16.- both have differentinfo ex. Pp18.actual set of allelesPP or Pp or pp
35 r R R r 19.Fill in the Punnett Square below 20. What is the genotypic ratio?21. What is the phenotypic ratio?rRRr
36 Dihybrid Cross – 4 points Rraa x RRAaFigure out mom and dad gametes and then fill out the punnett square
37 Answers Heredity Genetics Anaphase Alleles Metaphase Homozygous HeterozygousPhenotypeGenotypePunnett Square filled out1:2:13:1Work through as class on slideAnaphaseMetaphaseTelophaseProphaseMendellPeasRecessivePunnettBbFatherSegregation
39 Incomplete Dominance X Pink Flower (RR’) When the phenotype of the heterozygous individual is intermediate between the homozygous dominant and recessive individuals.Ex. Red flower (RR)XWhite flower (R’R’)Pink Flower (RR’)
40 CodominanceWhen both traits appear equally in the heterozygous individual Ex. Blood types
54 Gene Technology and Agriculture November 9th Video from desktop
55 Discussion Questions completed and discussed prior to, during, and after video How would you define gene technology? What role can gene technology have on agriculture in our country? What are some examples of gene technology used in the video? Does ethics play a role in gene technology? In what ways? Does gene technology alter the nutritional value of health of a product?