Presentation on theme: "What we know so far… DNA is the instructions for your cells DNA is like a cookbook – the recipes are GENES Each GENE provides instructions for making a."— Presentation transcript:
What we know so far… DNA is the instructions for your cells DNA is like a cookbook – the recipes are GENES Each GENE provides instructions for making a specific protein Specific proteins have specific shapes – mutations in the instructions (DNA) can result in changes in the protein.
Blonde hair Blue eyes Hitchhiker’s thumb detattached / attached earlobes widow’s peak How are these traits passed from one generation to the next?
Words you need to know: Mitosis Diploid Haploid Homologous Chromosome Meiosis Sperm Egg Sexual Reproduction Crossing Over Genetic Recombination Nondisjunction Allele
You have 46 Chromosomes Each of your body cells has 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs. Each pair is made of HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES Homo = same These chromosomes contain the same genes in the same order
Half of your chromosomes (23) came from your mom Half of your chromosomes (23) came from your dad You have 46 Chromosomes Each parent gave you one chromosome from a homologous pair.
Homologous Pairs gene From Mom From Dad From Mom From Dad
MITOSIS Review When your BODY cells (autosomal) divide, they make exact copies Results = two cells with the same type and number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Many animals reproduce ASEXUALLY – through mitosis ex: flatworms, sponges, jellyfish
This is a problem for most other animals. If humans were created through mitosis: 1 st generation 46 from mom + 46 from dad = 92 chromosomes for baby then 2 nd generation 92 from mom + 92 from dad = 184 chromosomes for baby And so on, and so on, and so on…
MEIOSIS A second type of cell division that occurs in the SEX CELLS (gametes: sperm and egg) Division creates four cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Haploid vs Diploid Body cells (autosomal cells) are DIPLOID DI = 2; Each cell has 2 copies of each chromosome These are considered “2n” –“n” is the chromosome number Sex cells are HAPLOID Each sex cell has HALF the normal number of chromosomes These are considered “n”
Sperm and Egg Sperm are the sex cells in males Eggs are the sex cells in females Both are produced through MEIOSIS Any reproduction that involves SPERM and EGGS is considered SEXUAL REPRODUCTION.
Steps of MEIOSIS Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Looks a lot like Mitosis, huh? Meiosis has 2 DIVISIONS How does this result in unique individuals? Division 1 Division 2
Crossing Over Homologous chromosomes exchange sections = Genetic Recombination Prophase 1: Homologous Chromosomes line up next to each other –CROSSING OVER
Crossing Over Crossing over creates new genetic combinations This results in new and unique individuals This is why you look similar to, but not identical to, your brothers and sisters!
Mendel’s Laws of Heredity Gregor Mendel worked with pea plants in the mid – nineteenth century When he crossed tall pea plants and short pea plants, all offspring were tall. These were F1 generation
When he crossed the F1 generation, the offspring were mixed Tall and Short. hmmmmmmmmmm. These were the F2 generation Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
1.The rule of unit factors each organism has two “factors” that control the traits Now, we call those factors GENES. A homologous pair can have two variations of the same genes. Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
Identical ALLELESDifferent ALLELES TALL GENE SHORT GENE mom dad
2. The Rule of Dominance Alleles (variations of a gene) can be DOMINANT or RECESSIVE Dominant genes contain instructions for a functional protein Recessive genes contain instructions for a non-functioning protein Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
For Example: Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a non-functional protein (recessive gene) To have Cystic Fibrosis you must have 2 recessive alleles – one from each parent. This is called HOMOZYGOUS recessive. HOMO = same Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
It is possible to have one dominant allele (a functional protein) and one recessive allele (non-functioning protein). This is called HETEROZYGOUS. HETERO = different These individuals are carriers. Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
3. The Law of Segregation During meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate and each sex cell receives one of the homologues. Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
Long chromosomes are HOMOLOGUES Short chromosomes are HOMOLOGUES
Errors in MEIOSIS Nondisjunction – homologous chromosomes do not separate during meiosis; results in gametes with too many chromosomes EX. Down Syndrome Individuals with an unusual number of chromosomes are POLYPLOID.
Polyploidy Some chromosome abnormalities do not cause disease, however abnormal numbers of chromosomes can be lethal or give rise to genetic disorders. –Cri-du-chat –Down Syndrome –Edwards Syndrome –Patau Syndrome
Punnett Squares Allow you to make predictions of offspring GENOTYPE and PHENOTYPE Genotype = the actual genes an individual has Phenotype = the physical appearance of an individual
Genotype can be HOMOZYGOUS or HETEROZYGOUS Homozygous = both alleles (copies of the gene) are the same – both genes for eye color are “blue” Heterozygous = both alleles are different – one gene for “blue,” one gene for “brown” Punnett Squares
Genotypes are written using letters. Each letter represents one allele All genotypes will have 2 letters Dominant genes (functional protein) are CAPITALIZED Recessive genes (non-functional protein) are lowercase. Punnett Squares
Example: Brown eyes are dominant, blue eyes are recessive. Genotype of an individual with brown eyes: BB (homozygous) or Bb (heterozygous) Genotype of an individual with blue eyes: bb (only homozygous) Punnett Squares To have a recessive trait, you need to have both recessive alleles – one from mom, one from dad. Recessive traits are always HOMOZYGOUS.
Phenotypes are written as descriptions; blonde hair, brown hair, brown eyes, blue eyes, etc. Punnett Squares
Example: Black fur is dominant to white fur in rabbits. What are the possible genotypes for a black rabbit? What are the possible genotypes for a white rabbit? Punnett Squares BB, Bb bb