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Weed Biology and Identification-201 Target students: M.Sc. Students in Weed Science Lecture: Dr. Majid AghaAlikhani (Ph.D.) Academic position : Associate.

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Presentation on theme: "Weed Biology and Identification-201 Target students: M.Sc. Students in Weed Science Lecture: Dr. Majid AghaAlikhani (Ph.D.) Academic position : Associate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weed Biology and Identification-201 Target students: M.Sc. Students in Weed Science Lecture: Dr. Majid AghaAlikhani (Ph.D.) Academic position : Associate Prof. of Tarbiat Modares University 1

2 Basic Plant Structure Roots Stems Leaves

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4 General Organization A plant has two organ systems: 1.the shoot system Found above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers (if the plant has any), and fruits (if the plant has any). 2.the root system Found below ground and includes roots, tubers, and rhizomes

5 Classifying Plants Nonvascular plants: have no vessels no stems No leaves No roots Examples: Mosses & Liverworts

6 Classifying Plants have vessels to transport food and water Xylem: transports water Phloem: transports food & nutrients have roots, stems and leaves Example: Grass, corn, trees, flowers, bushes Vascular Plants :

7 Gymnosperm Flowerless plants "naked seeds" cone bearing plants (seeds grow on cones) needle like leaves usually stay green year round Examples: pine trees & evergreens

8 Angiosperm flowering plants seeds are enclosed in a fruit have finite growing seasons Examples: grasses, tulips, oaks, dandelions Divided into two main groups: Monocots & Dicots

9 Monocot Seed Angiosperms that have 1 seed leaf (cotyledon) parallel veins on leaves 3 part symmetry for flowers fibrous roots Example: lilies, onions, corn, grasses, wheat

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11 Dicot Seed Angiosperms that have 2 seed leaves (cotyledons) net veins on leaves flowers have 4-5 parts have a taproot Examples: trees and ornamental flowers

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13 A. MONCOTSB. DICOTS 1. Have only 1 cotyledon1. Have 2 cotyledons 2. Fibrous roots2. Thick single main roots called taproots 3. Long thin leaves with parallel veins 3. Fan-like leaves with net veins 4. Flower parts are in groups of 3’s 4. Flower parts are in 4’s and 5’s 5. Stem has vascular tubes that are scattered 5. Stem has vascular tubes that are organized into rings 6. E.g. corn, wheat, grasses 6. E.G. beans, maples, peanuts, peas

14 Roots Roots absorb NUTRIENTS and water anchor the plant in the soil provide support for the stem store food usually below ground There are two major types of root systems in plants.. Taproot and fibrous root.

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16 Root Types Taproot systems have a stout main root with a limited number of side-branching roots. Examples of taproot system plants: nut trees, carrots, radishes & dandelions. Fibrous root systems have many branched roots. Examples of fibrous root plants: most grasses, marigolds and beans

17 Stems The stem is the main trunk of a plant. provide structure and support for leaves, flowers and fruits may also store food carry nutrients and water Most stems grow above ground BUT… many stems grow below ground or are ground hugging Some modifications include: bulbs, rhizomes, runners, tubers

18 Leaves are lateral outgrowths from the stem main function is food production through photosynthesis most commonly flat, broad and green. maximizes their function of absorbing sunlight and transforming it into food.

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20 Buds Buds are undeveloped shoots and flowers classified terminal or lateral. Terminal buds can be identified by their location at the tip of a stem. Lateral buds are located at the sides of the stem. Cabbage and head lettuce are examples of very large terminal buds Brussels sprouts are edible lateral buds. Broccoli is an example of edible flower buds.

21 Flowers Reproductive organ of the plant – produce seeds Flowers are usually both male and female The male part of the flower is the STAMEN The female part of the flower is the PISTIL See your sheet for more detail on flower anatomy

22 Flowers Continued Other external parts of flowers include: SEPALS - usually green and enclose other parts of the flower in the bud. PETALS are usually brightly colored and may contain aromatic substances as well as nectar glands.

23 MALE - STAMENS  Stamens produce pollen which contain the sperm  Stamens are made of a head called the anther and a stock called the filament.

24 FEMALE – PISTIL  Pistil holds the egg cells.  The pistil is made of a sticky head called the stigma, a stock called the style, and the ovary that holds the egg cells.

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26 Petal Corolla Sepal Pistil Stamen Calyx Stigma Style Ovary Pollen Anther Filament

27 Fruit A ripened ovary or group of ovaries containing the seeds the ovary enlarges forming the mature fruit. A simple fruit forms from the ripening of the ovary of a single pistil. Eg. Tomatoes & oranges More on classification of fruits!

28 More on Fruit A complex fruit is derived from more than one ovary resulting in a clustering of smaller fruit elements Eg. Raspberries, strawberries – not really berries!

29 The parts of the flower and what part they become in the fruit.

30 Fruit or Vegetable?? Botanically: fruit always develops from a flower and is composed of at least one ripened ovary. a vegetable is any edible part of a plant other than the flower. Most people think: a fruit is an edible plant part that is sweet and eaten as a dessert. vegetable is a plant part that is edible, but not particularly sweet.

31 Which is it? Many fruits, such as tomatoes, squash, cucumbers, corn and eggplant, are popularly called vegetables. However, only one vegetable, rhubarb (the edible petiole), is used as a fruit.


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