4General Organization A plant has two organ systems: the shoot system Found above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers (if the plant has any), and fruits (if the plant has any).the root systemFound below ground and includes roots, tubers, and rhizomes
5Classifying Plants Nonvascular plants: have no vessels no stems No leavesNo rootsExamples: Mosses & Liverworts
6Classifying Plants Vascular Plants: have vessels to transport food and waterXylem: transports waterPhloem: transports food & nutrientshave roots, stems and leavesExample: Grass, corn, trees, flowers, bushes
7Gymnosperm Flowerless plants "naked seeds" cone bearing plants (seeds grow on cones)needle like leavesusually stay green year roundExamples: pine trees & evergreens
8Angiosperm flowering plants seeds are enclosed in a fruit have finite growing seasonsExamples: grasses, tulips, oaks, dandelionsDivided into two main groups: Monocots & Dicots
9Monocot Seed Angiosperms that have 1 seed leaf (cotyledon) parallel veins on leaves3 part symmetry for flowersfibrous rootsExample: lilies, onions, corn, grasses, wheat
13A. MONCOTS B. DICOTS 1. Have only 1 cotyledon 1. Have 2 cotyledons 2. Fibrous roots2. Thick single main roots called taproots3. Long thin leaves with parallel veins3. Fan-like leaves with net veins4. Flower parts are in groups of 3’s4. Flower parts are in 4’s and 5’s5. Stem has vascular tubes that are scattered5. Stem has vascular tubes that are organized into rings6. E.g. corn, wheat, grasses6. E.G. beans, maples, peanuts, peas
14Roots Roots absorb NUTRIENTS and water anchor the plant in the soil provide support for the stemstore foodusually below groundThere are two major types of root systems in plants..Taproot and fibrous root.
16Root Types Taproot systems have a stout main root with a limited number of side-branching roots.Examples of taproot system plants:nut trees, carrots, radishes & dandelions.Fibrous root systems have many branched roots.Examples of fibrous root plants:most grasses, marigolds and beans
17Stems The stem is the main trunk of a plant. provide structure and support for leaves, flowers and fruitsmay also store foodcarry nutrients and waterMost stems grow above ground BUT…many stems grow below ground or are ground huggingSome modifications include:bulbs, rhizomes, runners, tubers
18Leaves are lateral outgrowths from the stem main function is food production through photosynthesismost commonly flat, broad and green.maximizes their function of absorbing sunlight and transforming it into food.
20Buds Buds are undeveloped shoots and flowers classified terminal or lateral.Terminal buds can be identified by their locationat the tip of a stem.Lateral buds are located at the sides of the stem.Cabbage and head lettuce are examples of very largeterminal budsBrussels sprouts are edible lateral buds.Broccoli is an example of edible flower buds.
21Flowers Reproductive organ of the plant – produce seeds Flowers are usually both male and femaleThe male part of the flower is the STAMENThe female part of the flower is the PISTILSee your sheet for more detail on flower anatomy
22Flowers Continued Other external parts of flowers include: SEPALS - usually green and enclose otherparts of the flower in the bud.PETALS are usually brightly colored and maycontain aromatic substances as well as nectar glands.
23MALE - STAMENS Stamens produce pollen which contain the sperm Stamens are made of a head called the anther and a stock called the filament.
24FEMALE – PISTIL Pistil holds the egg cells. The pistil is made of a sticky head called the stigma, a stock called the style, and the ovary that holds the egg cells.
27Fruit A ripened ovary or group of ovaries containing the seeds More on classification of fruits!FruitA ripened ovary or group of ovaries containing the seedsthe ovary enlarges forming the mature fruit.A simple fruit forms from the ripening of the ovary of a single pistil.Eg. Tomatoes & oranges
28More on FruitA complex fruit is derived from more than one ovary resulting in a clustering of smaller fruit elementsEg. Raspberries, strawberries – not really berries!
29The parts of the flower and what part they become in the fruit.
30Fruit or Vegetable?? Botanically: fruit always develops from a flower and iscomposed of at least one ripened ovary.a vegetable is any edible part of a plant other than the flower.Most people think:a fruit is an edible plant part that is sweet and eaten as a dessert.vegetable is a plant part that is edible, but not particularly sweet.
31Which is it?Many fruits, such as tomatoes, squash, cucumbers, corn and eggplant, are popularly called vegetables.However, only one vegetable, rhubarb (the edible petiole), is used as a fruit.