7 Basic needs of plants: * temperature *light *water *air *nutrients *time *room to grow
Characteristics of All plants : *eukaryotes and autotrophic. *Most live on land and have a way to obtain water. Many have a waterproof layer covering their leaves called the cuticle - prevents water loss. Multicellular
Two major divisions of plants Vascular Plants - those that have vascular tissues (tubes that transport water and food throughout the cell
Tubes-Xylem Move water p up in plants.Phloem move food down
Two main divisions of vascular plants: 1. SPORE PRODUCERS (ferns, club mosses and horsetails) 2. SEED PRODUCERS VASCULAR PLANTS
Spore Producer vascular plants(fern)- Reproduce with spores Leaves are called fronds They have stems that grow underground They need moist conditions to survive, and need shade to grow Ex. fern.
Seed producing vascular plants-All other plants are seed plants. They can produce seeds in cones(cones in pine trees) or have seeds in flowers.
Two types of seed plants: GYMNOSPERMS: Woody stems(conifers) Produce naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary Needle like leaves
REPRODUCTION IN GYMNOSPERMS Conifers produce male and female cones - sometimes cones are produced on separate trees
Male cones produce pollen Females produce one ovule at base of cone
Pollen falls from male on to female. In time sperm and egg cell join in ovule. Zygote develops into embryo.
POLLINATION: Transfer of male reproductive structure to female reproductive structure Seed develops & cone size increases. Cones with immature seeds point up & cones with mature seeds point down.
ANGIOSPERMS: Flowering Plants 2nd type of seed plant Herbaceous stems Produce seed enclosed in fruit two characteristics - produce flowers and fruit PARTS OF THE FLOWER:
Female Reproductive Part -Pistil stigma is the sticky surface at the top of the pistil; it traps and holds the pollen. The style is the tube-like structure that holds up the stigma. The style leads down to the ovary that contains the ovules.
Male Reproductive Part-Stamen The stamen has two parts: anthers and filaments. The anthers carry the pollen. These are generally yellow in color. Anthers are held up by a thread- like part called a filament.
Petals attract pollinators. The sepals are the green petal- like parts at the base of the flower. Sepals help protect the developing bud.
Seed Seeds develop once the sperm cells fertilize the egg cells. The seed provides a covering to keep the young plant from drying out. All seeds have an embryo, stored food and a seed coat.
The young plant that develops from the fertilized egg is called the embryo. The embryo has the beginnings of the roots, stems and leaves. The embryo uses the stored food inside the seed to grow. The stored food is in cotyledons. The outer part is called the seed coat.
TWO TYPES OF ANGIOSPERMS DICOT : examples are roses, violets and dandelions, oak, maple, vanilla bean and apple Flowers have 4 or 5 petals or multiples of that number Leaves are wide with veins that branch off each other Stems have bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a circle.
Life Cycle A plant's life cycle describes how long a plant lives or how long it takes to grow, flower, and set seed. Plants can be either an annual, perennial, or biennial.
Annual A plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season. It will grow, flower, set seed, and die Examples: marigolds, tomatoes, and petunias.
Perennial A plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years. Examples: daisies, chrysanthemums, and roses. (think bushes!)
Biennial A plant that needs two growing seasons to complete its life cycle. Produces leaves one season, rests in winter and grows flowers & seeds the next season. Examples: parsley, carrots, & foxglove.
Plant Parts - Roots The roots provide support - anchor the plant & absorb water and nutrients needed for growth. I’M A ROOT!