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Arthrology Def: Science deals with joints Joint = union between 2 or more bones or cartilages by uniting medium Function of joint 1.directed movement 2.stability.

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Presentation on theme: "Arthrology Def: Science deals with joints Joint = union between 2 or more bones or cartilages by uniting medium Function of joint 1.directed movement 2.stability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arthrology Def: Science deals with joints Joint = union between 2 or more bones or cartilages by uniting medium Function of joint 1.directed movement 2.stability between bones 3.bone growth Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

2 Classification of joints According to types of uniting medium Fibrous joints 1.Uniting medium is fibrous tissue 2.No joint cavity 3.are temporary (ossify with age) 4.No movement Cartilagenous joints 1.Uniting medium is cartilage 2. are temporary 3. No or very limited movement synovial joints 1.uniting medium is joint capsule 2.Joint cavity present 3.Movable Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

3 I- Fibrous joints (Synarthrosis) 1-Syndesmosis The uniting medium is fibrous connective tissue (interosseous ligament) ex. Union of metacarpal bones, radius and ulna and tibia and fibula Types of fibrous joints Large metacrpal small metacrpal syndesmosis Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

4 2-Gomphosis Implantation of teeth into the alveoli by periodontal ligament Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

5 3-Sutures fibrous tissues bond the bones of skull. Based on the edges of the articulating bones, it may be sutures Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

6 A- Serrated sutures: the interlocking borders are saw like as interfrontal suture B- Squamous sutures: borders are flat and overlapped as temporal and parietal suture C- Plane suture: the interlocking borders are smooth as nasal suture D- Foliate suture: the edge of one bone fits into a fissure in the adjacent bone as zygomatico-maxillary suture. A B C D Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

7 II- Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthrosis) 1. Synchondrosis (hyaline cartilage joint): the uniting medium is hyaline cartilage. EX. Costochondoral junction and epiphyseal and metaphyseal junction Types of cartilaginous joints Ribs Costochondral junction Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

8 2. Symphesis (fibrocartilage joint): the uniting medium is fibro cartilage as the pelvic symphysis and joint between vertebral bodies Fibrocartilaginous disc Vertebrae Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

9 III. Diarthroidal joint (Synovial, movable or true joint) Structures of synovial joints A-constant structures Articular surface Articular cartilage Articular capsule Joint cavity B- inconstant (additional features) Ligaments Articular disc &menisci Marginal cartilage Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

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11 A-constant structures ( essential) I - Articular surfaces It is formed of compact bone It is smooth but sometime interrupted by synovial fossa Covered by articular cartilage except synovial fossa Structures of synovial joints (cont.) Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

12 II - Articular cartilages It is smooth hyaline cartilage Cover the articular surfaces except at the synovial fossa Almost one convex and the other is concave The concave one is thickest at the periphery and thin at the center and vise versa Its function : – –increase the curvature of bones – –facilitate movements and reduce frictions Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

13 III-Joint capsule It is fibroserous tube Originated from the periosteum of bones attached around the articular margins and surrounds the joint cavity, it is consisted of: Outer fibrous layer (external layer) – –it may contain ligaments Inner synovial layer (internal layer) – –it is a thin single layer of epithelium – –line the joint cavity except the articular cartilage – –it secrete and/or absorb synovia. Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

14 B- Additional features: present in some joint 1- ligaments: Strong white fibrous band unite 2 or more bones A- internal (Intraarticular) lig.: placed within the fibrous layer covered with the synovial membrane Ex. Cruciate ligament B- Extrnal (periarticular) lig.: situated outside the joint capsule Ex. Collateral ligaments Structures of synovial joints (cont.) Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

15 2- Articular disc &menisci: fibrocartilage plate present between the articular cartilages divide the joint cavity partially (disc) completely (menisci) into 2 parts Ex. Disc of tempro-mandibular joint, menisci of stifle joint function: correct the incongruent surfaces anti concussion & allow greater movement Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

16 3- Marginal cartilage: ring of fibrocartilage encircle the rim of articular cartilage Ex. acetabulum of hip joint function: enlarge the joint cavity protect the rim from fractures Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

17 Synovia (synovial fluid) Secreted and absorbed by synovial membrane It present within synovial joint, around some tendons and within bursae chemical composition: (mucin, salts, albumin, fat droplets, and cellular debris) Function 1. Lubricate the articular surfaces and tendons 2. Nutrition of cartilage 3. Remove waste metabolites 4. Enable wandering leukocyte to circulate in the joint cavity Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

18 Blood and nerve supply of synovial joint Synovial joint receives vessels from surrounding muscles Sensory nerves terminates in the joint capsule and ligaments Autonomic innervations terminate in the arteries Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

19 Anatomical types of synovial joints I- According to the number of articulating bones Simple joint : between two bones Compound joint: between more than two bones II- according to fitting of articular surfaces Congruent joint: adapted to each other In congruent joint: are not adapted, ex stifle joint Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

20 TypesShapeExample 1- Ball and socket Spheroidal Enartherosis Ball and other is a cavity Ball is the largest The socket is the largest Shoulder hip 2-Hinge (ginglymis)Like door hinge, one concave and other is convex elbow 1 2 1 III-according to the shape of articular surfaces Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

21 TypesShapeExample 3- Ellipsoid The convex and concave are ellipsoidal oval Atlantooccipitalradiocarpal 4- gliding (plane) Flat surfaces jointIntercarpal skull Atlas 3 Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008 4

22 TypesShapeExample 5- pivotOne ring moved around axis of other atlanoaxial 6-saddleConcavoconvex as horse saddle Caffin and pastern 5 Pastern joint Coffin joint 6 Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

23 TypesShapeExample 7- cochlearCochlea (cavity) receives ridge of other bone Tibio-tarsal 8-Bi-condylarBoth are convex condyles femorotibial Tibia Talus Tarsal bones 7 Tibia Femur 8 Lateral condyle of femur Lateral condyle of tibia Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

24 Physiological types of synovial joints I-According to the axis of movement: uniaxial: around one axis Transverse axis as hing joints (elbow joint) Vertical axis as pivot joints (atlantoaxial) biaxial : arround two axis Biocodylar joints Ellipsoid joints Saddle joints multiaxial : more than two ball and socket

25 Movements of synovial joints A- According to causes Active movements: due to muscle contraction Passive movements: due to gravity or the movement of other joints B- According to the shape of articular surface 1-Gliding : one surface glides over another Ex. Intercarpal, femoropatellar and the joints between the articular process of cervical vertebrae Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

26 2- angular movements A- flexion: (decrease the joint angle) B- extension: (increase the joint angle) C- adduction: (towards the median plane) D-abduction: (away from the median plane) E- circumduction: (combination of A,B,C and D) 3- rotatory movement Rotation of one segment around the longitudinal axis of other segments atlantoaxial joint Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008

27 Factor affecting joint stability 1. Shape and size of articulating bone 2. Arrangements of articulating bone 3. Tone of surrounding muscles 4. Strength of the ligaments To be continued in applied anatomy Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat. 1. 2008


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