Heat The movement of heat in the atmosphere causes changes in weather. The sun’s energy travels as electromagnetic waves. Some of the sun’s energy is absorbed by the atmosphere.
3 Types of Heat Transfer radiation – the transfer of heat through empty space from the sun conduction – the transfer of heat through touch convection – the transfer of heat through the movement of molecules
Winds Wind is the horizontal movement of air Winds are caused by the unequal heating of the atmosphere Winds will travel from an area of high pressure to low pressure http://hint.fm/wind/
Measuring Winds anemometer – measures wind speed with cup-like devices the faster is spins, the faster the wind is blowing wind-chill factor – increased cooling felt by wind
Local Winds winds that blow over short distances common near large bodies of water
Land Breeze land breeze – breeze that occurs at night as the land quickly cools and becomes cooler than the water
Sea Breeze warm air moves from the land during the day moves over the cooler air above the water
Global Winds Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances. The sun hits the equator at a straight angle so it heats the surface stronger. The sun’s rays hit the poles at an angle which spreads the heat so it is cooler. The movement of air between the equator and the poles produces global winds.
Coriolis Effect Coriolis Effect – the way Earth rotates creates a curve to the Earth’s winds All winds travel to the right in the Northern hemisphere
Major Global Wind Types Doldrums – area of low pressure at the equator with little motion Horse Latitudes – calm warm air from the equator that moves north and south Trade Winds – winds that blow easterly towards the equator Prevailing Westerlies – winds that are turned towards the east by the Coriolis Effect Polar Easterlies – cold air from the poles outwards