Presentation on theme: "Section 3: Atmospheric Circulation Objectives ◦ Explain the Coriolis effect. ◦ Describe the global patterns of air circulation, and name three global wind."— Presentation transcript:
Section 3: Atmospheric Circulation Objectives ◦ Explain the Coriolis effect. ◦ Describe the global patterns of air circulation, and name three global wind belts. ◦ Identify two factors that form local wind patterns.
The Coriolis Effect ◦ Coriolis effect the curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to Earth’s rotation ◦ The circulation of the atmosphere and of the ocean is affected by the rotation of Earth on its axis. Winds that blow from high pressure areas to lower-pressure areas curve as a result of the Coriolis effect. ◦ In general, the Coriolis effect is detectable only on objects that move very fast or that travel over long distances.
The Coriolis Effect, continued The diagram below shows the movement of air due to the Coriolis effect.
Global Winds ◦ Each hemisphere contains three looping patterns of flow called convection cells. ◦ Each convection cell correlates to an area of Earth’s surface, called a wind belt, that is characterized by winds that flow in one direction. ◦ These winds are called prevailing winds.
Global Winds 1. Trade Winds ◦ Trade wind - prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30º latitude to the equator in both hemispheres ◦ Like all winds, trade winds are named according to the direction from which they flow. ◦ In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds flow the northeast and are called the northeast trade winds. ◦ In the Southern Hemisphere, they are the southeast trade winds.
Global Winds 2. Westerlies ◦ Westerlies prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30º and 60º latitude in both hemispheres ◦ Between 30º and 60º latitude, some of the descending air moving toward the poles is deflected by the Coriolis effect. ◦ In the Northern Hemisphere, the westerlies are the southwest winds. In the Southern Hemisphere, they are the northwest winds.
Reading Check Name two ways in which the trade winds of the Northern Hemisphere differ from the westerlies of the Northern Hemisphere. They flow in opposite directions from each other, and they occur at different latitudes.
Global Winds 3. Polar Easterlies ◦ Polar easterlies prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60 and 90 latitude in both hemispheres ◦ Surface winds created by the polar high pressure are deflected by the Coriolis effect and become the polar easterlies. ◦ Where the polar easterlies meet warm air from the westerlies, a stormy region known as a front forms.
Global Winds The Doldrums and Horse Latitudes ◦ The trade wind systems of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere meet at the equator in a narrow zone called the doldrums. ◦ As the air approaches 30º latitude, it descends and a high-pressure zone forms. These subtropical high-pressure zones are called horse latitudes. ◦ Surface winds are weak and variable in both of these zones.
Global Winds Wind and Pressure Shifts ◦ As the sun’s rays shift northward and southward during the changing seasons of the year, the positions of the pressure belts and wind belts shift. ◦ The average shift for the pressure belts and wind belts is only about 10º of latitude. ◦ This small change causes some areas of Earth’s surface to be in different wind belts during different times of the year.
Global Winds Jet Streams ◦ Jet streams - a narrow band of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere. They exist in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. ◦ Types: ◦ Polar Jet Stream - can reach speeds of 500 km/h and can affect airline routes and the paths of storms. ◦ Subtropical Jet Stream.
Global Winds The diagram below shows the different wind belts on Earth.
Local Winds ◦ Movement of air are also influenced by local conditions, and local temperature variations commonly cause local winds. ◦ Local winds are not part of the global wind belts. ◦ Gentle winds that extend over distances of less than 100 km are called a breeze.
Local Winds Land and Sea Breezes ◦ Equal areas of land and water may receive the same amount of energy from the sun. However, land surfaces heat up faster than water surfaces do. ◦ Sea Breeze - cool wind moving from water to land. ◦ Overnight, the land cools more rapidly than water does, and the sea breeze is replaced by a land breeze.
Local Winds Mountain and Valley Breezes ◦ A valley breeze forms when warm air from the valleys moves upslope. ◦ At night, the mountains cool more quickly than the valleys do. At that time, cool air descends from the mountain peaks to create a mountain breeze. ◦ Areas near mountains may experience a warm afternoon that turns to a cold evening soon after sunset.