2 Essential Questions Ch 12 S6 What causes winds?How do local winds and global winds differ?Where are the major global wind belts located?
3 Because air is a fluid, it can move easily from place to place Because air is a fluid, it can move easily from place to place. Differences in air pressure causes the air to move.What is Wind?Wind is the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
4 What causes wind?The horizontal movement of air (wind) iscaused by differences in air pressure.Most differences in air pressure are caused by the unequal heating of the atmosphere. Convection currents form when an area of the Earth's surface is heated by the sun’s rays.
5 Wind blows from areas of high pressure toward areas of low pressure. Air over a heated surface expands (becomes less dense) and the air pressure decreases. If the air in a nearby area is not heated as much, it is cooler (denser) and the air pressure is higher. The cooler, denser air flows underneath the warmer, less dense air. This forces the warm air to rise.area of high pressurearea of low pressureWind blows from areas of high pressuretoward areas of low pressure.
6 Measuring Wind Winds are described by their direction and speed. Wind direction is determined with a windvane.The name of a wind tells you where the wind is coming from.A south wind blows toward the north.A north wind blows toward the south.Wind speed can be measured with ananemometer.See page 419 figure 19
8 Wind-Chill FactorA cool breeze on a warm day feels good, but on cold days the same breeze can make you feel colder.The wind blowing over your skin removes the body heat.The stronger the wind, the colder you feel.The increased cooling a wind can cause is called the wind-chill factor.
9 Land Breeze… (night time) Local Winds…are winds that blow over short distances.are caused by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface within a small area.form only when large-scale winds are weak.Sea Breeze… (day time)or lake breeze is a local wind that blows from an ocean or a lake. (water takes longer to heat and takes longer to lose its heat) See page 420Land Breeze… (night time)is the flow of air from land to a body of water. (land heats faster and cools faster) See page 42o
11 Global Winds…* are winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances.* are created by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface. (like local winds)* occur over alarge area.(unlike localwinds)
12 Global Convection Currents Temperature differences between the equator and the poles produce giant convection currents in the atmosphere
13 The Coriolis EffectIf the Earth did not rotate, the winds would blow in a straight line from the poles toward the equator.Earth's rotation causes long distance winds to curve.The way Earth’s rotation makes windscurve is called the Coriolis Effect.causes the winds in the Northern Hemisphere to turn to the right.causes the winds in the Southern Hemisphere to turn to the left.
15 Global Wind BeltsGlobal convection currents and other factors combine to produce a pattern of calm areas and wind belts.The calm areas include the doldrums and horse latitudes.Major Wind BeltsTrade WindsPolar EasterliesPrevailing Westerlies
16 Regions near the equator with little or no wind are called the doldrums. At about 30 degrees north or south latitudes, the air stops moving toward the poles and forms another belt of calm air. Long ago sailors ran out of food for their horses in this area so they threw the horses overboard. This area is called the horse latitude.
17 Trade windsWinds in the Northern Hemisphere between 30 degrees north latitude and the equator generally blow from the northeast. In the southern hemisphere the winds between 30 degrees south latitude and the equator blow from the southeast. Long ago sailors relied on these winds to carry cargo from Europe to the West Indies and South America. As a result of this, the steady easterly winds are called the trade winds.
18 Prevailing Westerlies In the mid-latitudes, between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north and south, winds that blow toward the poles are turned toward the east. Because they blow from the west to the east, they are called prevailing westerlies. They play an important part in the weather of the U.S.
19 Polar EasterliesCold air near the poles sinks and flows toward the lower latitudes and the Coriolis effect shifts the polar winds to the west. This produces the polar easterlies. The polar easterlies meet the prevailing westerlies at about 60 degrees north latitude and 6o degrees south latitude, along the polar front. The mixing of the warm and cold air along the polar front has a major effect on weather in the U.S.
20 Jet streamsA wind that flows in the upper troposphere from west to east over vast distances at great speeds.about 10 kilometers above the surfacehundreds of kilometers wide but only a few kilometers deepblow at speeds of 200 to 400 kilometers per hourWander north and south along a wavy path
22 Quiz ________ are caused by differences in air pressure. _________are caused by the unequal heating of Earth’s surface within a small area._________ are created by the unequal heating of earth’s surface over a large area.Major global wind belts are the ____________, the ______________, and the _______________.Word BankGlobal winds prevailing westerlies winds trade winds local windspolar easterlies
23 Essential Questions Answered Ch 12 S6 What causes winds?Differences in air pressure, which are caused by unequal heating of the atmosphere.
24 2. How do local winds and global winds differ? E Q Answered Ch 12 S62. How do local winds and global winds differ?Local winds involve a small area and develop only when global winds are weak. Global winds happen over a large area.
25 3. Where are the major global wind belts located? EQ Answered Ch 12 S63. Where are the major global wind belts located?Trade winds: between the equator and 30° N and S;prevailing westerlies: between 30 ° and 60 ° N and S;polar easterlies: 60 ° N and 60 ° S to the poles.